Aging 101 ==== ST4US

By pjain      Published Oct. 31, 2019, 11:27 p.m. in blog Health   

Part of Aging Series - Aging Series

What is Aging, Statistics

Aging ST4US

Longevity Actionable for 50+

Aging Theory Explained

Geriatric Health Care

Yoga, Joints aches and pains

Aging Pathways, TR, Scr

Global Impact, Regulatory Issues

Global Impact of Dying Early, NCD burden

  • WHO Global Burden of Disease Project, which estimates that the number of years lost to premature death or compromised by disability in 2010 was 2.5b ie a third of potential human life goes to waste.
  • By 2050, the number of people aged 60 years and older will increase from 841 million to about 2B. - WHO

Aging = Exponential Cost of Health Care Costs

Longer lives have run exactly parallel to the increase in chronic illness and the explosion in healthcare costs. Can we possibly afford to live even longer – much less radically longer? - American bioethicist Daniel Callahan.

Aging = Marker of Society Affluence, Knowledge Based Economy

  • Anti Aging scientists retort they are making seniors fitter and healthier in 70s+ and reducing health care costs of senescence.

The savings you get from having people healthy and productive in society ... are in the order of trillions of dollars and that money can be poured back into things such as education and infrastructure.

"Every nation that has increased lifespan and health has become a richer nation," he says. "It's pure economics. The healthier your population, the wealthier is your nation, not the other way around. Chronic diseases and healthcare costs have exploded because there are more people reaching old age. But the key difference are the costs associated with healthy aging and unhealthy aging." -- Kennedy of Buck Institute

Health-Span not just Doddering Old fogies

I want to die at 75. "Living too long is ... a loss.. It renders many of us, if not disabled, then faltering and declining, a state that may not be worse than death but is nonetheless deprived. It robs us of our creativity and ability to contribute to work, society, the world." - Oncologist and bioethicist Ezekiel Emanuel

TH: Problem of Replicating Results from animals to humans

How are you going to replicate those results - this is a problem all scientists, particularly those working in the field of drug development.

"Scientists are working hard to find solutions to this problem and the FDA is starting to listen," says the NIA's de Cabo. "I think there will be pathways to test whether drugs extend human health-span."

Scientists can “reprogram” any cell to take on the type of youthful state seen in an embryo - works well even converting any cells to stem cells. Similar progress made in unicellular yeast, etc.

But turning back the aging program in full animals is not as easy because we’re made up of trillions of specialized cells acting in concert, not just one floating in a dish.

TH: Genetic Basis of Aging

“I don’t think we are even near to being able to reverse the aging process as a whole in mammals,” says J. Pedro de Magalhães, whose team at the University of Liverpool maintains a database of longevity-connected genes.

FDA doesn't recognize Aging as a disease - won't authorize RCTs

Clinical trials on humans are lengthy and costly. In the US, the Food and Drug Administration's refusal to recognise ageing as a disease. FDA is holding up the testing of drugs already on the market that have been shown to increase lifespan, such as the immunosuppressant rapamycin and diabetes treatment metformin.

Lifespan Gap - Rich vs Poor

  • Longevity Science Panel in Britain was set up by the insurance provider Legal and General to look at how various factors affect life expectancy.

  • Widening rich-poor mortality gap in England

  • A boy born in one of the most advantaged 20 percent of neighbourhoods in 2015 can now expect to outlive his counterpart, born in one of the least advantaged 20 percent of neighbourhoods, by 8.4 years. In 2001, that gap was 7.2 years. For girls, the difference has risen from 5 years to 5.8 years over the same period. ... A sixty-year-old man living in the most advantaged 20 percent of neighbourhoods could expect to live 4.1 years longer than his counterpart from the least advantaged 20 percent in 2001, increasing to 5.0 years longer in 2015. A sixty-year-old women living in the most advantaged 20 percent of neighbourhoods could expect to live 3.1 years longer than her counterpart in the least advantaged 20 percent in 2001, increasing to 4.2 years longer in 2015.

Anti Aging Actionables

Get a College Education

  • Help your kids get excellent degrees and attain gainful employment to have a good lifespan.

    I would choose to go to Eton ( £36,000 fees/year) or get my parents to pay for private tuition to get the best exam results or entry to the best schools. Or live in an affluent area where all the best schools are.

Don't get "lower class" vices, Safety-First anti-accident, Child-safe homes and Avoid area-crime

Avoiding smoking, obesity and alcohol consumption.

  • Drugs or smoking or simply not getting adequate pre-natal care or pregnancy etc.

  • A good lifespan continues with behaviour, such as having a dangerous dog in the home with a new baby.

Be Educated in Health - do Preventative Maintenance

A lot of the gap can be explained by different rates of uptake of preventive health services .

Take care of your weight

People who care about being slim, for example, will be healthier.

Eight in every 10 people aged 40 to 60 in England are overweight, drink too much or get too little exercise. .. Many people no longer recognise what a healthy body weight looks like, say the officials - and obesity, which greatly increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, is increasingly considered normal. - NHS

Good Nutrition, Good Diet

Foods That Older Adults Should Avoid Eating

  1. Raw or undercooked eggs, meat and poultry: Undercooked foods like eggs, meat, poultry and sushi can cause food poisoning. Seniors are at higher risk.
  2. Grapefruit: If you are prescribed with some medicines then you should avoid grapefruit as it can intensify the effects of some drugs, making them dangerous.
  3. High-sodium foods: Too much salt is a problem for older adults with hypertension.
  4. Caffeine: Caffeine increases anxiety and make your heart beat more quickly or irregularly. This could be dangerous who have a heart condition.
  5. Sodas and sugary drinks: Drinks may raise your blood sugar to a diagnosis of diabetes. Excess sugar leads to obesity and other health issues.
  6. Alcoholic beverages: Harmful to people with chronic illness or who take certain types of medications, such as antihistamines and painkillers, alcohol should be avoided.
  7. Foods with empty calories: Fast foods, like doughnuts and french fries, won’t provide you with much-needed nutrients. Seniors become naturally less active as they get older so it is difficult to work off extra calories.

Be Fit! Stand and Walk all through day!

Even in last 20-30 years, nature of work has changed. People now drive to work and sit at work all day as agricultural and factory jobs have disappeared.

Get fit, but so do many people in middle age who take care of their diet and exercise regularly. "I cut out desserts at age 40, try not to fill myself up at any meals. I walk, I lift weights a couple of times a week." - David Sinclair who looks 40 at age 50+.

Stress kills the poor - Aging gap

Being born into wealth and higher status affords you significantly greater opportunity i.e. ease of access to money and influence.

A lot of poor people work extremely hard - eg having to live and keep on moving between rented accommodation with limited savings or emergency funds. The entire family has to work 1 or more full-time jobs their entire lives. Often they get less health and other benefits. So life is always tough for them.

Beyond the stress of daily living, there is hopelessness as while theoretically it may be possible for them to improve their lives, but it’s much much harder and they stop trying.

Sleep the Wonder Drug

Social Nets - help Mental Health and Optimism


Mice given rapamycin have lower rates of cancer, show improvements in physical fitness, cognition and cardiovascular health, and live about 15 per cent longer than normal mice.

1930s Low Calorie Restriction - mice live 50% longer

The anti-ageing magic of kilojoule restriction has been known for more than 80 years. In the 1930s, researchers at Cornell discovered that mice fed 40 per cent fewer kilojoules while being provided the same level of nutrition lived up to 50 per cent longer than their peers, looked younger, were more energetic, and staved off age-related disease.


A recent study of 180,000 people found that people with type-2 diabetes taking metformin also lived, on average, 15 per cent longer, supporting findings that metformin can curb some cancers and heart disease. But since it isn't prescribed for these conditions, the FDA will not allow clinical trials.

Statins - bring down Total,LDL Cholesterol

Trigger Sirutins - Stress of cold, sauna, exercise, fasting 2-3 days

Reservatol - red grape skins, stems => ensure fresh supplement

Sirtuins stimulation to heal the body, repair

A group of enzymes called sirtuins confers longevity and health benefits of kilojoule restriction as demonstrated in-lab in yeast cells.


NMN helps old cells power themselves like they did when they were younger. This is good for avoiding dementia.

  • MAAC10 NMN Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Supplement (NMN 125mg Capsules). The Most Powerful NAD+ Precursor More Stable Than Riboside. We use 99% Pure Pharmaceutical Grade Stabilized NMN Amazon Price: $25.01 for 30 ($0.83 / Count)

What is Aging

Challenge: Extending Productive Years - NOT frail ones

Challenge: Aging as a curable disease

Need to REPAIR the damage

Aging is the progressive and inexorable accumulation of molecular and cellular damage as a side effect of the bodies day to day operation which ultimately leads to loss of physical function, increasing infirmity, elevated risk of chronic illness, and ultimately death -. Address those issues by repairing the damage that has accumulated as a person ages and we are pretty much home and dry.

Mortality Causes, Longevity and Lifespan Facts

Exp. Life Rising Worldwide - US bottom 25%, Russia Falling

<3 years: Babies die - Infant mortality Kink at $2000 per capita

<22 years Youth Die - Drugs, Accidents, Opioids, Suicide, War

<35 years Romeos Reproduce and Die

<50s Uncles get Sick and Die - hygiene and germ

<70 years : BP, Heart and Metabolic diseases

<90 Cancers Kill

Healthy Life Span - Walk and Laugh till 100 years

Max Life Span ~120+ years

Anti-Aging Researchers, Organizations

Blue Zones - Okinawa, 7th Day Adventists, Greek Islands

Major Anti-Aging Scientists

David Sinclair of Harvard

  • His goal is to find the "master control switch" that can regulate the pathways that contribute to ageing itself. "It could be one pill for 20 diseases at once."
  • Seeks to increase lifespan from 120 to 150 - and healthy at that

  • 1996? PhD at UNSW after MD

  • 1997 Postdoc work with MIT's Dr Leonard Guarente, one of the world's leading genetic researchers. His work was on aging of yeast cells and causes of aging. They identified a group of enzymes called sirtuins, which they found conferred the longevity and health benefits of kilojoule restriction. Sinclair believes sirtuins are the master regulators that divert energy into cellular preservation in times of famine in order to preserve the organism for reproduction when times are better. "They are the body's natural defence against disease," he says.

  • 2003 Nature paper on resveratrol Harvard biochemist Konrad Howitz that activated one of the sirtuin enzymes known as SIRT1. When Sinclair fed resveratrol to yeast cells, lab worms and fruit flies, they lived longer. The compound resveratrol, and related substances, prolonged lifespan and improved health in animals as varied as worms, fruit flies and mice.

  • 2007 sold company for $700m to GSK. In 2010 PFE discredited it, publishing evidence that the compounds were inhibiting other proteins and that some of the mice taking high doses of the drugs had died. PFE scientists concluded the Sirtris compounds and resveratrol were pharmacological dead ends owing to "their highly promiscuous profiles". GSK shutdown acquired company.

  • 2013 Sinclair published in Science revalidating thesis that resveratrol activates SIRT1 were correct and that hundreds of other, more powerful, compounds developed by Sirtris worked in the same way.

  • 2014 Cell, Sinclair announced another breakthrough – he'd reversed the ageing process using a molecule, naturally produced in humans, known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). After being fed NAD for a week, mice that were the equivalent of a human aged 60, saw an improvement in their metabolism that turned them into the equivalent of 20-year-olds. Exercising and dieting can boost NAD levels, but as we age, our body makes less and less NAD. Resveratrol works on just one [the Sirtuin enzyme], whereas NAD works on all seven. NAD is the fuel for these enzymes. Think of it as the petrol and resveratrol as the accelerator pedal. You need the petrol but you also need the accelerator, so if you have both it's even better.

  • 2018+ Co-founder of several biotechnology companies

  • In-vitro fertilisation techniques to a health app that will use an implant to send real-time health information to your doctor.

  • Has Harvard's David Sinclair Found the Fountain of Youth?

  • David Sinclair’s anti-aging science | Harvard Magazine
  • TEDMED - Speaker: David Sinclair
  • Q&A: How Harvard's David Sinclair Unlocked His Own Fountain of Youth

Dr Abhirup Das

  • Is working with Sinclair at UNSW on a molecule that will change the number of capillaries in muscles and increase blood flow.

David Le Couteur, Aging and Alzheimers Institute

Brian Kennedy, Buck Institute for Research on Aging in California

  • Kennedy was a vocal critic of Sinclair's earlier work on resveratrol, now concedes he may be on the right track

Scientists love Caenorhabditis elegans, or C. elegans for short, because they live for 29 days, making them easy to study, compared with lab mice, which live for about two years. By tweaking two genetic pathways in C. elegans, researchers at the Buck Institute recently increased the worm's lifespan by a factor of five – which, if translated into human terms, could see us living for half a millennium. But, like so many discoveries, what works on worms won't necessarily work on humans.

Private Companies in Aging

Craig Venter, Human Longevity

  • In the 1990s Venter's company, Celera Genomics, raced to be first to sequence a human genome tied with Govt body in 2000
  • 2015 Created synthetic life using computer- generated DNA inserted into a living bacterium.
  • 2014 Human Longevity, founded in March 2014 with $70m VC
  • Two DNA sequencing machines that will map 40,000 human genomes a year, including those from supercentenarians (those who've lived past their 110th birthday).

Aubrey de Grey, SENS Research Foundation, SFO

  • He argues ageing can be "cured" using tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
  • in 2004, posited the 5000-year lifespan, earning him the moniker, the "Prophet of Immortality",

Rafael de Cabo, National Institute on Aging (NIA) in Maryland

Anti-Aging - Billionaire and High Tech sponsors

  • Google Calico - $1.5b+ lab in SFO run by Art Levinson, Steve Jobs' successor at Apple.
    • Geneticist Cynthia Kenyon
  • Peter Thiel, who has set up Breakout Labs, a non-profit organisation that supports early-stage companies
  • Oracle founder Larry Ellison donated $430 m+ to anti-ageing research.


Rejuvenate Bio - Gene Therapy for pets

A life-extension startup pursuing a longevity long shot through the $72-billion-a-year US pet industry. Specifically, in US pet owners spend $20b/year on vet bills alone.

Pets are something people will pay for, and the FDA process is much faster. We’ll do dog trials, and that’ll be a product, and that’ll pay for scaling up in human trials.

It is working on technology to reverse aging in dogs and humans. - Stop fatal heart ailments common in spaniels and Doberman pinschers, amassing evidence that the concepts can work in humans too. - Likely to mirror one treatment Davidsohn has given mice to stop heart damage. That involved using gene therapy to block a protein, TGF-beta, termed a “master switch” in the process by which heart valves scar, thicken, and become misshapen, the same process that afflicts the dogs.

Gene therapies using modern tools like CRISPr work by inserting DNA instructions into a virus, which conveys them into an animal’s cells. In the Harvard lab, the technology has been used to modulate gene activity in old mice—either increasing or lowering it—in an effort to return certain molecules to levels seen in younger, healthy animals. The lab started working through a pipeline of more than 60 different gene therapies, which it is testing on old mice, alone and in combinations. The Harvard group now plans to publish a scientific report on a technique that extends rodents’ lives by modifying two genes to act on four major diseases of aging: heart and kidney failure, obesity, and diabetes.

  • The team hit on the idea of treating pets because proving that it’s possible to increase longevity in humans would take too long. “You don’t want to go to the FDA and say we extend life by 20 years

  • Founders include Harvard biologist George Church, Noah Davidsohn and Daniel Oliver seen here with the dog-show announcer David Frei—have appealed to dog owners to fund an anti-aging study in pets.

  • Church’s large Harvard lab,

  • known for attempting to genetically resurrect the woolly mammoth,
  • 2015 tried rejuvenating mice using gene therapy and newer tools like CRISPR.

  • It won a grant from the US Special Operations Command to look into “enhancement” of military dogs while Harvard is seeking a broad patent on genetic means of aging control in species including the “cow, pig, horse, cat, dog, rat, etc.”

  • A stealthy Harvard startup wants to reverse aging in dogs, and humans could be next - MIT Technology Review


r Videos

Anti-Aging Books

The Anti Aging Solution: 5 Simple Steps to Looking and Feeling Young

Forever Young: The Science of Nutrigenomics for Glowing, Wrinkle-Free Skin and Radiant Health at Every Age

Perricone Weight Loss Program The Perricone Weight-Loss Diet By: Nicholas Md Perricone

The Perricone Promise: Look Younger Live Longer In Three Easy Steps

dn Dr. Perricone's 7 Secrets to Beauty, Health, and Longevity: The Miracle of Cellular Rejuvenation

BPR Prio

Aging 101


Robert Kane, the director of the Center on Aging at the University of Minnesota people need to do something with their lives that “they feel is either interesting or worthwhile”

Thomas Perls, the director of the New England Centenarian Study at Boston University School of Medicine,


Media, Mags, Confs

TR, news general

Reversing Aging Expts, TRs

DNA Repair, Autophyagy, Telomers

Aging Cause Research


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