Archaeological and Evidence based Indian History
- Sanauli Indepth Analysis --- xfr ---
- Palaeolithic 2500 kya – 250 kya Archaeological sites
- Neolithic 11 kya - 3300 BC) Archaeological sites
- Chalcolithic and Bronze Age (4000–1300 BC) Archaeological sites
- Vedic and Hindu Culture - Literary, non-Archaeological Evidence
- Early Vedic Culture 2500? - 1000 BC
- Age of Heros - Iron Age (1500–200 BC) Archaeological sites
- South Indian Culture Development
- Prakit Literature of Jainism likely predate Vedic encoding - TODO PRIORITY!
- Buddhism - Saka Muni - connection to Viking Vodin?
- Vedic Era and Late IVC in Punjab-Ganges/Yamuna Doab Region
- Taxila University Center of Culture and Learning - 500 BC
- Nalanda University, Bihar
- Historical Era Jain/Buddist Era
- --- Iranian, Afghani Cultures 550--330 BC and Post-Greek
- Achaemenid Empire 550--330 BC
- Kushan Empires of Central Asian - 320 BC -
- Yavanarajya Indo-Greek Kingdom 180 BC – AD 10
- --- Rajasthan to Sindh and Gujarati Cultures
- --- Gangetic Hindu Kingdoms Western UP to Eastern Bihar
- Hindu Era Kingdoms (600 BC – AD 1206) Archaeological sites
- Islamic Era Kingdoms (1200 – 1858 AD)
- British and Colonial
- === Evidence based Deduction === XFR
- Genetic Evidence
- Winners Dynamic Rewrite History Hero Epics
- === Soft Evidence - Problems of HARD EVIDENCE
- Non-Factural Interference
Sanauli Indepth Analysis --- xfr ---
Jijith Nadumuri Ravi a former scientist of ISRO, who was part of many GSLV launches and the Chandrayan 1 study phase. He is the founder of four Wiki sites AncientVoice, Naalanda, Takshasila and RecentVoice
Palaeolithic 2500 kya – 250 kya Archaeological sites
Proto-human Palaeolithic Evidence 2.5 mya
Tools crafted by proto-humans that have been dated back two million years have been discovered in the northwestern part of the subcontinent.
The earliest archaeological site in the subcontinent is the palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley. Soanian sites are found in the Sivalik region across what are now India, Pakistan, and Nepal.
A skull fragment found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley in central India indicate that this part of Indian subcontinent might have been inhabited in the Middle Pleistocene era around 250,000 years ago.
Acheulean TN 150 kya
Evidence for presence of Hominins with Acheulean technology 150,000–100,000 BCE in Tamil Nadu.
Technology similar to contemporary artifacts found used by Homo sapiens in Africa found in Jwalapuram around 74000 BCE.
Paleolithic industries in South India Tamil Nadu 30,000 BCE
Bhimbetka shelters 100 kya
The ancient history of the Bhimbetka region includes some of South Asia's oldest settlements and some of its major civilizations.
Some of these were inhabited by Homo erectus more than 100,000 years ago.
Some of the Stone Age rock paintings found among the Bhimbetka rock shelters are approximately 30,000 years old.
11 kya Permanent settlements. Early Neolithic culture with first confirmed semi permanent settlements appeared 11000 years ago in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in modern Madhya Pradesh, India.
Madrasian, Attirampakkam, TN - 385 kya
The Madrasian culture is a prehistoric archaeological culture of India, dated to the Lower Paleolithic, the earliest subdivision of the Stone Age. It belongs to the Acheulian industry
Madrasian culture sites have been found in Attirampakkam (Attrambakkam=13° 13' 50", 79° 53' 20"), which is located near Chennai (formerly known as Madras), Tamil Nadu. Thereafter, tools related to this culture have been found at various other locations in this region.
Bifacial handaxes and cleavers are typical assemblages recovered of this culture.
Flake tools, microliths and other chopping tools have also been found. Most of these tools were composed of the metamorphic rock quartzite.
The stone tool artifacts in this assemblage have been identified as a part of the second inter-pluvial period in India.
Due to the paucity of any hominine fossils or bones recovered yet from the site or from South Asia as a whole, it is currently not possible to conclude which hominin species had created these tools.
By performing a luminescence dating method called post-Infrared-Stimulated Luminescence (pIR-IRSL) on about 7,200 artifacts found at Attirampakkam, researchers have made a chronology of Attirampakkam stone tool technology with a span of about 200,000 years. Latest studies indicate that the Levallois technology used at Attirampakkam emerged at about 385,000 (± 64,000) years ago, at a time period when processes signifying the end of the Acheulian culture occurred and a Middle Palaeolithic culture had emerged.
Attirampakkam village about 60 km from Chennai, this site has the oldest known stone tools in India. This is the core site for the Madrasian culture.
Neolithic 11 kya - 3300 BC) Archaeological sites
The Bronze Age in the Indian subcontinent begins around 3000 BCE, and in the end gives rise to the Indus Valley Civilization, which had its (mature) period between 2600 BCE and 1900 BCE. It continues into the Rigvedic period, the early part of the Vedic period. It is succeeded by the Iron Age in India, beginning in around 1000 BCE.
Gulf of Cambay - Dwarka and Gujarati sites
- Discoveries in Archaeology from the Gulf of Cambay | Archaeology Online
- India Archaeology — Nazca Lines — Gulf of Cambay — World history timelines | Archaeology Online
Chalcolithic and Bronze Age (4000–1300 BC) Archaeological sites
Harappa and Mohenjodaro - Indus Valley Culture - Western Regions
- Indus Valley Civilization.
The so-called Indus script.
4000 BC - Earliest IVC - settlements. ??Where was the Center??
Spread - The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro become large metropolises and the civilization expands to over 2,500 cities and settlements across the whole of Pakistan, much of northern India, and large parts of Afghanistan, covering a region of around one million square miles. This was larger than the land area of its contemporaries Egypt and Mesopotamia combined, and also had superior urban planning and sewage systems. The Iron Age Phase of the Indus Valley Civilization had a population estimated to total more than rest of world put together.
IVC Script - it had some of the world's first writing using an early form of the Indus script and signs.
3000 BC. Crafts and Trading core of culture.
- The civilization depended significantly on trade, was the first civilization to use wheeled transport in form of bullock carts, and also used boats.
IVC developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin) had elaborate urban planning, baked brick houses, efficient drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings.
- The Harappan Civilization by Tarini Carr | Archaeology Online
Dwarka and Gujarati land sites
Rajasthan and Haryana Harappan sites
After the 1947 partition, ASI lost sites to Pakistan, but by the 1990s, around 1,400 Harappan sites had been identified in India.
Vedic and Hindu Culture - Literary, non-Archaeological Evidence
Early Vedic Culture 2500? - 1000 BC
- Widely now the Aryan Invasion Theory has been discredited, and the "Out of India" explanation for the PIE also seems simplistic.
However what seems clear is an overlap between Indo-Iranian and Vedic-Indus-Valley culture with the latter leading to the Vedas that clearly indicate the rivers and geography of this region.
Age of Heros - Iron Age (1500–200 BC) Archaeological sites
Iron Age kingdoms rule India— Kuru, Panchala, Kosala, Videha.
South Indian Culture Development
Adichanallur skeleton urn-burial Culture 1800 BC -
Adichanallur is an archaeological site in Thoothukudi district in Tamil Nadu, India that has been the site of a number of very important archaeological finds. Korkai, the capital of the Early Pandyan Kingdom, is located about 15 km from Adichanallur.
Carbon dating of samples excavated in 2004 from the Adichanallur site has revealed that they belonged to the period between 1000 BC and 600 BC. In 2005, around 169 clay urns containing human skeletons were unearthed that date back to at-least 3,800 years. In 2018, research on skeletons remains were dated at Manipur University to 1500 BC.
Kolar Gold Fields and Kanchi, TN 1000 – 300 BCE
Kanchi district, gold mine of Megalithic sites in Tamil Nadu, South India
- 543 BCE - The Vanga-based Prince Vijaya - deemed as first king of Ceylon (c. 543 BCE) married a daughter of the Pandyan king of Madurai, in South India, to whom he was sending rich presents every year. Sinhala chronicle Mahawamsa mentions this event
Prakit Literature of Jainism likely predate Vedic encoding - TODO PRIORITY!
- 1200 BCE Neminath estimated date of Mahabharata
- Connection to Anatolia Sea Peoples invasion?
- 877 BCE Birth of Parsvanatha 23rd Jain Tirthankara - ref.
- 599 BCE Mahavira of the 24th Tirthankara is born. This turns out to become the most famous wave of Jainism. Chandragupta the originator of Maurya dynasty was a Jain. It was when Ashoka went Buddhist that the empire collapsed with his children.
- 527 BCE Nirvana of Mahavira
Buddhism - Saka Muni - connection to Viking Vodin?
Siddharta Gautama 'Buddha' of the Shakya polity in S. Nepal, founded Buddhism
- 563 BCE Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini into a leading royal family in the republic of the Shakyas, which is now part of Nepal.
- 483 BCE Traditional buddist Mahaparinirvana date of Gautama Buddha at Kushinagar.
Vedic Era and Late IVC in Punjab-Ganges/Yamuna Doab Region
Sanauli - Horse Drawn Chariots - 1900 BC
Only 70 km from Delhi in UP Baghpat district, Sanoli
- Carbon dating tests have confirmed that India’s largest site with 126 burials
- Underground chambers
Carved and Decorated Legged coffins
- Purification of bodies on burial - showing clothing impressions on bodies, for tight wrapping
- Rice in Pots buried along with bodies
- Warrior Culture
- Ornaments and Weapons are in copper so seen as Chalcolithic period of India
- A rusted bow and arrow, war shields, whip, an an antenna sword with a hilt - a full set of weapons!
- 3 Chariots with a fixed axle with a long pole to be run by a pair of animals - most likely horses
- Axle, Chassis and wheels are similar to then and contemporary chariots
This is very significant as the Vedas have a lot of chariot literature (like Greek myths)
Connection with Mahabharata?
- The Sanauli finds could push Mahabharata date back to 1500-2000 BCE
- Earlier Lal pegged 900-1000 BCE as commonly believed on the basis of the findings of renowned archaeologist BB Lal who who carried out excavations of the Painted Grey Ware culture at Indraprastha and Hastinapur in 1951-52 tying to a heavily flooded layer dated to 800 BC. Lal claimed PGW was common to most sites and the earliest common pottery connecting all the Mahabharata sites such as Hastinapur, Mathura, Kurukshetra and Kampilya.
- This PGW theory has been criticized after Sanauli, as the PGW culture which had rural settlements, no chariots, limited pottery and few rituals. These don’t corroborate with the literature evidence of the Mahabharata too,”
- “The whip we have discovered is specifically the one that is used on a horse, not a bull. The wheels, pole and yoke are solid, with copper triangles. The helmets, shields are sophisticated. The Sanauli findings are a missing link with the Rigvedic culture and a sign of our civilisational continuity. Chariots figure prominently in Rigveda, Ramayana and Mahabharata,” - Sanjay Manjul, ASI.
The Cemetery H culture was a Bronze Age culture in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, from about 1900 BC until about 1300 BC. It is regarded as a regional form of the late phase of the Harappan civilisation, but also as the manifestation of a first wave of Indo-Aryan migrations, predating the migrations of the proto-Rig Vedic people.
- Rigveda apprx 1000 BC
- 700 BCE The Upanishads, a sacred text of Hinduism, are written.
- 600 BCE Vedic Period ends as Classical Hindu kingdoms of Magada, etc. emerge
Taxila University Center of Culture and Learning - 500 BC
Nalanda University, Bihar
Historical Era Jain/Buddist Era
--- Iranian, Afghani Cultures 550--330 BC and Post-Greek
Achaemenid Empire 550--330 BC
The Achaemenid Empire is also considered as the world's first superpower. The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great.
In its growth, it ranged at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. It is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration, for its multicultural policy, for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires.
538 BCE Cyrus the Great, founder of the Persian Achaemenid Empire reached up to northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent, today's Afghanistan, which later proved to be his nemesis and caused his death.
Kushan Empires of Central Asian - 320 BC -
- The Macedonian-Greeks invaded and disrupted Persia and Afghanistan but failed at Indus River
- Macedonian Empire (330--323 BC)
Yavanarajya Indo-Greek Kingdom 180 BC – AD 10
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom, and historically known as Yavanarajya, was a Hellenistic kingdom spanning modern-day Afghanistan and the classical circumscriptions of the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, which existed during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.
--- Rajasthan to Sindh and Gujarati Cultures
Ror 600 bc - 400 BC
The Ror dynasty was a power from the Indian subcontinent that ruled modern-day Sindh and northwest India from 450 BC. The Rors ruled from Rori and was built by Dhaj, Ror Kumar, a Ror Kshatriya, in the 5th century BCE. Rori has been known by names such as Roruka and Rorik since antiquity. As capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, Roruka is mentioned as an important trading center in early Buddhist literature. Buddhist Jataka stories talk about exchanges of gifts between King Rudrayan of Roruka and King Bimbisara of Magadha. Divyavadana, the Buddhist chronicle has said that Ror historically competed with Pataliputra in terms of political influence. The scholar T.W. Rhys Davids has mentioned Roruka as one of the most important cities of India in the 7th century BCE.
- Ror Dynasty (450 BC -- AD 489)
--- Gangetic Hindu Kingdoms Western UP to Eastern Bihar
Alamgirpur (Uttar Pradesh)
Nanda Empire 380--321 BC
The Nanda dynasty ruled in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent during the 4th century BCE, and possibly during the 5th century BCE. The Nandas overthrew the Shaishunaga dynasty in the Magadha region of eastern India, and expanded their empire to include a larger part of northern India. Ancient sources differ considerably regarding the names of the Nanda kings, and the duration of their rule, but based on the Buddhist tradition recorded in the Mahavamsa, they appear to have ruled during c. 345–322 BCE, although some theories date the start of their rule to 5th century BCE.
Maurya Empire and Chanakya Brahmin Legacy 321--184 BC
The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in South Asia based in Magadha, founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 322 BCE, and existing in loose-knit fashion until 185 BCE. The Maurya Empire was centralized by the conquest of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, and its capital city was located at Pataliputra. Outside this imperial center, the empire's geographical extent was dependent on the loyalty of military commanders who controlled the armed cities sprinkling it. During Ashoka’s rule the empire briefly controlled the major urban hubs and arteries of the Indian subcontinent excepting the deep south. It declined for about 50 years after Ashoka's rule, and dissolved in 185 BCE with the assassination of Brihadratha by Pushyamitra Shunga and foundation of the Shunga dynasty in Magadha.
Hindu Era Kingdoms (600 BC – AD 1206) Archaeological sites
- Satavahana Empire (230 BC -- AD 220)
- Shunga Empire (185--73 BC)
- Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BC -- AD 10)
- Indo-Scythian Kingdom (50 BC -- AD 400)
- Indo-Parthian Kingdom (AD 21 -- c. 130)
- Kushan Empire (AD 60--240)
- Vakataka Empire (c. 250 -- c. 500)
- Kalabhras Empire (c. 250 -- c. 600)
- Gupta Empire (280--550)
- Western Ganga Kingdom (350--1000)
- Kamarupa Kingdom (350--1100)
- Maitraka Empire (475--767)
- Kabul Shahi Empire (c. 500 -- 1026)
- Harsha Empire (606--647)
- Chalukya Empire (543--753, 942--1244)
- Western Chalukya Empire (973--1189)
- Eastern Chalukya Kingdom (624--1075)
- Gurjara-Pratihara Empire (650--1036)
- Pala Empire (750--1174)
- Rashtrakuta Empire (753--982)
- Paramara Kingdom (800--1327)
- Yadava Empire (850--1334)
- Lohara Kingdom (1003--1320)
- Eastern Ganga Empire (1078--1434)
- Zamorin Kingdom (1102--1766)
- Kalachuris of Tripuri (675-1210)
- Chutiya Kingdom (1187--1673)
Islamic Era Kingdoms (1200 – 1858 AD)
- Delhi Sultanate (1206--1526)
- Ahom Kingdom (1228--1826)
- Chitradurga Kingdom (1300--1779)
- Reddy Kingdom (1325--1448)
Vijayanagara Empire (1336--1646)
Mughal Empire (1526--1858)
- Madurai Kingdom (1559--1736)
- Thanjavur Kingdom (1532--1673)
- Sikkim Kingdom (1642--1975)
- Maratha Empire (1674--1818)
- Sikh Confederacy (1707--1799)
- Sikh Empire (1799--1849)
- Travancore Kingdom (1729--1947)
British and Colonial
- Portuguese India (1510--1961)
- Dutch India (1605--1825)
- Danish India (1620--1869)
- French India (1759--1954)
- Company Raj (1757--1858)
- British Raj (1858--1947)
=== Evidence based Deduction === XFR
Prehistory in India
Climate Change behind Indus Valley Collapse
- Wood's Hole Researchers Conclude that Climate Change Led to Collapse of Ancient Indus Civilization | Archaeology Online
Brahmi - Massive Role understated
Singh of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad, an internationally acclaimed biotechnology expert's work on tracing genetic lineage of primitive human species have already suggested a different world history, enough to prove a major breakthrough in this field.
There was no White Invasion, neither there was any Aryan Invasion as was believed in the past, he said referring to the recent studies on diversity of Indian population that had been published in 'Nature' magazine. The studies indicated southern route of migration of East African population (believed to originate 70,000 years ago) towards Indian sub-continent via Gujarat coast and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, he added. Saying that Indian population was made up of many populations that have varied genetic compositions, he also added recent studies on DNA linkage indicated an invisible thread (trait) that bounded the Indian population comprising populations of other countries in the sub-continent including Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Malaysia, believed to have originated almost 33,000 years ago.
"The study is on to trace the ancestors of Ancestor North Indian (ANI) population, while the ancestors of Ancestor South Indian (ASI) population has been already traced," he said. "Ongee and Jarva species have been established to be the ancestors of ASI population while DNA matching has found resemblance of East African population with Kurumbha species in Kerala and Raghuvanshi of West Bengal," he added.
"We are looking for DNA from Afghanistan, Pakistan and Jammu and Kashmir to trace the origin of ANI population and once that is established, we would be in a position to indicate the movement of ANI population towards European countries that would change the face of world history," he said. "We are also waiting for clearance of Ministry of Environment and Forest to start major project on revival of endangered animal species including Asiatic lion, tiger, leopard and black buck through cloning technique. We are also working for standardisation of cloning process that would prove to be a milestone in conserving endangered animal species," he added. Prof Lalji Singh is also heading Laboratory for Conservation of Endangered Species (LACONES) for their revival in the country.
Monuments and Architecture
Crafts and Metallurgy
Winners Dynamic Rewrite History Hero Epics
Unholy Trinity - merging Male Lingam god, Mother Goddess and Sustaining Vaisnavism - farming diety
Why so little remaining written evidence
Vedas and other "Oral Evidence" - dominating the discussion
Destruction of Jain and Buddhist documents by Hindu Extremists from 500bc on
=== Soft Evidence - Problems of HARD EVIDENCE
- Sanskritization: A New Model of Language Development | Archaeology Online
- Linguistic Aspects of the Indo-European Urheimat Question | Archaeology Online
Indus Script decoding
- Beyond Decipherment: Message of the Indus Seals | Archaeology Online
- Decoding the Ancient Script of the Indus Valley | Archaeology Online
- Decipherment of Indus Valley Vedic Seals in Modern Science | Archaeology Online
Colonialist Agenda - Keep Blackies subjugated
British Racism and AIT
Max Muller was egged on by British racism when he propagated the White Invasion theory.
Out of India Theory
Hindutva rewriting of History
Hindutva project to define the Indian nation as Hindu and confer upon modern Indians autochthonous ancestors, in contrast to Muslims.
Organizations belonging to the Hindutva nebula, notably the BJP, started to resort largely to archaeology’s legitimizing discourse in the late 1980s and 1990s. They have turned it into a powerful political and ideological tool since then.