DNA Evidence and Indian History
- Human Genetic Evolution
- DNA Evidence Methods and Conclusions
- India - Rakhigarhi Harayana DNA evidence
Human Genetic Evolution
60k BC - Humans cross deep sea trenches to Australia
The Wallace Line is a sea boundary of impassable deep sea trenches - separating the Asian & Australian/New Guineau regions - between Bali, Lombok and east of Philippines. This isolation led to a genetic diversity and dramatic evolution of separate species there.
10k BC Ag Prehistory River Valley Civilizations before Cities
Ag 10k bc in tropical regions
Archaeological origins are supposed to be - Mideast 10k bc ← Is this really true or earlier in India? - China 9k bc - New Guinea 8k-6k bc - South/Central America 4k bc
- Made complex trades and specialization of labor possible _ Emergence of military (standing armies) and robber barons who controlled - taxed ~10% - 35% est.
- Emergence of cities
Luckier tropical climates - Indus valley, China - able to thrive due to monsoons
Ag emergence had major environmental impacts Going on from 10k BC
- Land clearing & Deforestation
With 100s of millions of people just in river valleys, massive areas of forests and river marshlands were slashed-and-burnt and planted with rice paddies.
This development of rice paddies caused large amounts of greenhouse gasses - methan and CO2.
DNA Evidence Methods and Conclusions
Genetics & Archaeological Evidence
India - Rakhigarhi Harayana DNA evidence
Rakhigarhi DNA does NOT match pastorals
Rakhigarhi DNA does NOT match Iranian 1500 bc farmers
Rakhigarhi DNA matches Afghanistan and Baluch skeletons
In the following map the yellow labels indicate two sites where a minority of buried individuals yielded ancient DNA which matched that of the Rakhigarhi individual.
Map and Location
This map depicts the geographical span of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), showing the location of Rakhigarhi (blue) in Harayana, other significant IVC sites (red), and sites to the north and west from other archaeological cultures (other colors). SRC: Vasant Shinde / Deccan College Post Graduate and Research Institute
- Harappa top reference