DNA Evidence and Indian History

By pjain      Published Oct. 11, 2019, 5:36 p.m. in blog Humanities-History-Blog   

Human Genetic Evolution

60k BC - Humans cross deep sea trenches to Australia

The Wallace Line is a sea boundary of impassable deep sea trenches - separating the Asian & Australian/New Guineau regions - between Bali, Lombok and east of Philippines. This isolation led to a genetic diversity and dramatic evolution of separate species there.

10k BC Ag Prehistory River Valley Civilizations before Cities

Ag 10k bc in tropical regions

Archaeological origins are supposed to be - Mideast 10k bc ← Is this really true or earlier in India? - China 9k bc - New Guinea 8k-6k bc - South/Central America 4k bc

Ag impact

  • Made complex trades and specialization of labor possible _ Emergence of military (standing armies) and robber barons who controlled - taxed ~10% - 35% est.
  • Emergence of cities

Luckier tropical climates - Indus valley, China - able to thrive due to monsoons

Ag emergence had major environmental impacts Going on from 10k BC

  • Land clearing & Deforestation

With 100s of millions of people just in river valleys, massive areas of forests and river marshlands were slashed-and-burnt and planted with rice paddies.

This development of rice paddies caused large amounts of greenhouse gasses - methan and CO2.

DNA Evidence Methods and Conclusions

Overview

Genetics & Archaeological Evidence

Resources

India - Rakhigarhi Harayana DNA evidence

Rakhigarhi DNA does NOT match pastorals

Rakhigarhi DNA does NOT match Iranian 1500 bc farmers

Rakhigarhi DNA matches Afghanistan and Baluch skeletons

In the following map the yellow labels indicate two sites where a minority of buried individuals yielded ancient DNA which matched that of the Rakhigarhi individual.

Map and Location

This map depicts the geographical span of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), showing the location of Rakhigarhi (blue) in Harayana, other significant IVC sites (red), and sites to the north and west from other archaeological cultures (other colors). SRC: Vasant Shinde / Deccan College Post Graduate and Research Institute

References

Resources


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