Global Health Series

By pjain      Published July 26, 2020, 9:54 p.m. in blog Health   

Addiction Series

NCD Actionables

ACTION: Reduce Tobacco Use

The world has 1.3 billion tobacco users.

Stopping smoking is more important than ever as evidence reveals that smokers are more likely than non-smokers to have severe outcomes from COVID-19.

Substantial reduction of NCD mortality requires policies that considerably reduce tobacco and alcohol use Tobacco accounts for over 7.2 million deaths every year (including from the effects of exposure to second-hand smoke), and is projected to increase markedly over the coming years.

Problem: Very hard to quit

Although around 60% of tobacco users worldwide say they want to quit, only 30% of them have access to the tools that can help them do so

Method: Nicotine replacement therapy and Harm Reduction Therapy

Nicotine replacement therapy is usually administered as patches or gum.

Nicotine replacement therapies come from pharmas like Johnson & Johnson Consumer Health. - JNJ donated 37,800 nicotine patches to help 5,400 people in Jordan quit smoking which has some of the highest tobacco use rates in the world.

Method: Ban on Smoking/Vaping in Public Places

Government of Jordan adopted a ban on smoking and vaping indoors in public places only in July 2020.

Method: AI-assistant on Covid-19 myths

The AI bot dispels myths around COVID-19 and tobacco and helps people develop a personalized plan to quit tobacco. Access Initiative for Quitting Tobacco is designed to deliver tobacco cessation services that will help people overcome both physical and mental addictions to tobacco. A sample AI bit, Florence was created with technology developed by San Francisco and New Zealand based Digital People company Soul Machines, with support from Amazon Web Services and Google Cloud.

ACTION: Reduce Alcohol Use - Control pricing, Restrict Ads/Product Placement

More than half of the 3.3 million annual deaths attributable to alcohol use are from NCDs, including cancer.

ACTION: Manage BP better with Meds and Better Adherence

NCD death reduction requires better management of blood pressure

In terms of attributable deaths, the leading metabolic risk factor globally is elevated blood pressure (to which 19% of global deaths are attributed), followed by overweight and obesity and raised blood glucose.

Method: Maintain a low sodium, vegetable-fruit diet with Potassium - DASH diet is good

Method: Know your BP Numbers - get tested

Method: Be Physically active

Method: Avoid Harmful effects by limiting or stopping Alcohol

Method: Eliminate exposure to Tobacco smoke

ACTION: Manage Soda, Sweet Drinks with Regulation

ACTION: Boost Activity in Communities

1.6 million deaths annually can be attributed to insufficient physical activity.

Metabolic risk factors contribute to four key metabolic changes that increase the risk of NCDs: raised blood pressure overweight/obesity hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) and hyperlipidemia (high levels of fat in the blood).

ACTION: Clean Burning in-home Stoves - Reduce Respiratory Deaths

ACTION: Better Screening for Cancer as per Guidelines

U.S. government’s global HIV/AIDS platform together with partners to increase the availability of cervical cancer screening and treatment, particularly for HIV-positive women who are at high risk, and promote breast cancer education programs in sub-Saharan African and Latin American countries.

NCD Trends and Key Factors

Significance, Key Contributors

  • Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) kill 41 million people each year, equivalent to 71% of all deaths globally.
  • Tobacco use, physical inactivity, the harmful use of alcohol and unhealthy diets all increase the risk of dying from a NCD.

Of 41 m NCD cardiovascular diseases account for most NCD deaths, or 17.9 million people annually, followed by cancers (9.0 million), respiratory diseases (3.9million), and diabetes (1.6 million).

Year Global Deaths % from NCDs Age distribution Cause Distribution
2016 57m 71% 4% <30yr, 38% 30-70, 58% 70+ 44% Card, 22% Cancer, 9% Pulm, 4% Dia, 20% other
  • Globally
  • The lowest risks of NCD mortality were seen in high-income countries in Asia-Pacific, western Europe, and Australasia, and in Canada.
  • The highest risks from NCDs were in low-income and middle-income countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa

Cardiac Risk factors Top Death Causes

CVDs are the number one cause of death globally (mainly from coronary heart disease and stroke), can be mostly prevented by addressing risk factors; these include tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity, physical inactivity, and diabetes.

Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes (see Table 16) account for more than 80% of these deaths. Other NCDs include: diseases causing blindness or deafness, birth defects, mental and neurological disorders (including Alzheimer’s disease), and renal and autoimmune diseases.

While diabetes is on surface a small part, actually, Diabetic patients with insulin resistance are even at a greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Obesity, high cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia and elevated blood pressure are mainly considered as major risk factors for diabetic patients afflicted with cardiovascular disease.

Cancer

With lung, stomach, liver, colon, and breast cancer causing most cancer deaths, behavioral and dietary risks include high body mass index, lack of physical activity, low fruit/vegetable intake, and tobacco and alcohol use. Viral infections (e.g., Hepatitis B and C viruses; Human papillomavirus) are also causes of cancer.

Diabetes and Metabolic

Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to death as a consequence of high fasting blood sugar. Addressing risk factors (e.g., healthy diet, physical activity, normal body weight) can help prevent or delay onset of adult-onset diabetes (type 2).

Chronic respiratory diseases

Chronic diseases of the airways and other structures of the lung; among the most common are asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, an incurable, life-threatening lung disease that interferes with normal breathing). COPD is caused primarily by tobacco smoke (firsthand use or secondhand smoke).

Global Health

India

China

Africa

Mideast Asia


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