Gut Science 101

By pjain      Published Oct. 17, 2020, 9:55 p.m. in blog Health   

Gut Biota 101

Toxins, Antibodies, Bad diets Hurt Biota

Antibiotics make people grow fat

  • 80% of Antibiotics used in -> make animals fat very fast =>
  • Even small amounts of anitibiotics make mice fatter
  • Non-Organic milk has orders of magnitude more pesticides and antibiotics

Leaky Gut - a serious danger!

Impact of Microbiome

The human gut microbiome is linked to many states of human health and disease

Gut-Brain impact

  • GABA
  • Serotinin secretions by microbes
  • Vagus Nerve - direct connection

Drugs Impact

  • PPI reflux meds - huge impact on biota .. acid neutralizers - forces biota to shift to totally different part of GI system
  • Metformin - also shifts the biota to GI

Novel Probiotics Biota -

  • Crystal sonelia - gut busting bacteria

GUT Supplements and Nutrition Theories,

Cinnamon

Grape Fiber, Grape seed

Gut Fiber

Fiber 101

Dietary fiber (DF) comprise highly complex substances that are any non-digestible carbohydrate and lignin not degraded in the upper gut.

Classification of DFs is - Most Common according to their solubility in water - Grading related to gel-forming capabilities, viscosity - Fermentation rate by the gut microbiota - in particular where it occurs - most in intestine, or only in lower colon

soluble vs insoluble fiber impact

Impact

  1. High dietary fiber intake (>25 g/d in women and >38 g/d in men) with a 20–30% reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), after correction for confounders. SPECIFICALLY high-cereal fiber (HCF) diets appear to improve insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes risk.

  2. WHY & HOW IS CONFUSED a. MAINLY Non-viscous Fiber Benefits - driven by high intakes of whole grains and insoluble cereal fibers

  3. They are indigestible, non-mucous-genic so do not relevantly influence postprandial glucose responses [i.e., glycemic index (GI)]
  4. They are strongly fermented by the gut microbiota in the colon.
  5. BUT high-cereal fiber HCF diets on weight loss are only moderate and comparable to other types of dietary fibers
  6. PATH THEORY: prevention of the absorption of dietary protein and modulation of the amino acid metabolic signature

b. MIXED results a dietary focus on soluble, viscous, gel-forming, more readily fermentable fiber intakes derived from fruit and certain vegetables yields mixed results and generally does not appear to reduce T2D risk. - WRONG MYTH is common: metabolic effects of highfiber intake are explained by mechanisms that should mainly apply to the soluble, viscous type.

  • 2018 Fujisaka, S. et al. Diet, genetics, and the gut microbiome drive dynamic changes in plasma metabolites. Cell Rep. 22, 3072–3086
  • 2018 RVW Weikert Impact of Dietary Fiber Consumption on Insulin Resistance and the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes !doi dn

Role of Fiber and DIA Overview

While the relationship between dietary fiber and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been much studied, the evidence about its role in the prevention and control of this condition has been conflicting.

2017 Rvw Cereal fiber, fruit fiber, and type 2 diabetes: Explaining the paradox.

We critically evaluate prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined insoluble/nonviscous/cereal fiber and soluble/viscous/fruit fiber in relation to risk of T2DM. Taken as a whole this evidence indicates that, 1. MODERN Moderate in the quantities typically eaten, cereal fiber is protective against T2DM while fruit fiber gives little protection. 2. Impacts Gut Biota profiles - We argue that the protective action of cereal fiber may be explained by the modulating effects of gut microbiota through mechanisms such as: dn DOI - Davison KM karend@athabascau.ca -Temple NJ normant@athabascau.ca

How much fiber should I take, Doctor?

  • ADA says 14g/1000 kcal - for average => 25 g/day for women, 38 g/day for average men.
  • It does recommend majority of all grains be whole grains.

  • Reality is >50g /day

High-cereal fiber (HCF)

Whole grain foods contain ~12% mostly insoluble.

In USA the main sources of whole grains and insoluble cereal fibers are bran products from corn and wheat, which contain cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin and which are typically not gel-forming, non-viscous, and with only moderate fermentability in the colon

Consequently, insoluble cereal fibers do not directly influence postprandial glucose excursions and therefore have no relevant direct influence on the glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load of carbohydrate-containing foods.

BRAN Engineered - Pure forms of Insoluble fiber : flaxseed, wheat bran, oat bran

Resistant Starch - Potato Starch

Main exception: insoluble resistant starch, which is highly fermentable by the gut microbiota in the colon. SCFAs including acetate, propionate, and butyrate that are produced by bacterial fermentation of indigestible dietary fiber polysaccharides and resistant starch in the colon.

Soluble/viscous/fruit/vegetable fiber

  • main sources of soluble, viscous, more readily fermentable types of DF are fruit, certain vegetables, and some products derived from barley and oats that are rich in both insoluble DF and soluble β-glucans.

  • Legumes also have more of this than whole-grain foods.


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