Shared Mobility

By pjain      Published Aug. 24, 2020, 3:49 a.m. in blog Startups   

Mobility, Sharing, Gig-App Economy


Shared Mobility Trends and Key Factors

What is it

Shared mobility is a subgroup of the larger sharing economy. The sharing economy is a term that encompasses a wide variety of services, usually involving the online transactions of goods or services as part of a peer-to-peer marketplace. Innovations in social networking, location-based services, and Internet technologies have enabled shared mobility to develop and expand rapidly. By improving efficiency, providing cost savings, and monetizing underused resources, shared mobility services have become widely used in many cities around the world.

Shared mobility refers to the shared use of a vehicle, bicycle, or other transportation mode. It is a transportation strategy that allows users to access transportation services on an as-needed basis. Shared mobility is an umbrella term that encompasses a variety of transportation modes including carsharing, Bicycle-sharing systems, ridesharing companies, carpools, and microtransit.

Better Accessibility, Overcome Public Transit Gaps

Shared mobility include enhanced transportation accessibility

Shared mobility networks also retain the potential to expand the reach of public transportation by addressed gaps in existing public transportation systems.

Are there cost savings

Reduced Gridlock

Reduced Car Ownership

Reduced driving and decreased personal vehicle ownership.[

Reduced Climate Emissions

Shared mobility programs often yield a variety of environmental, social, and transportation system benefits. These are primarily related to personal vehicle usage and ownership, and vehicle miles or kilometers traveled (VMT/VKT).

EV Adoption

  • Shared Mobility kms
Year kms/year %total
2040 4.25 T 16%


  • 2010+ proliferation of tech-enabled shared mobility has occurred mostly within the last decade, shared mobility services are not a new phenomenon. Smartphone applications and location data have increased the feasibility of shared transportation services, including carsharing companies and mobile app-based vehicle for hire companies.
  • 1965 the first bikesharing program began in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
  • 1948 Very first carsharing program was established in Zurich, Switzerland,


=== Major Shared mobility Segments

Ridesharing - Vanpooling, Carpooling


Ridesharing services enable shared rides between drivers and passengers that have similar origins and destination pairings.

Ridesharing is distinct from ridesourcing (or TNCs), like Uber and Lyft in that the driver typically decides trip origin, destination, and any deviations to accommodate one or more additional passengers. Drivers and riders have the same origin, destination, or potentially share multiple proximate destinations, with a common purpose of conserving resources, saving money, or saving time.

Driver earnings from ridesharing are regulated in the U.S. by the Internal Revenue Service, and as of January 2017, they were capped at 53.5 cents per mile for business travel by car.

In the U.S., the modal share of ridesharing mainly of Carpools has declined since the 1970s. In 1970, The U.S. Census found that about 20% of American workers commuted to work by carpool. The American Community Survey has found that the carpooling modal share has declined to around nine percent as of 2013, though it still remains the second most popular mode of travel in the U.S., next to driving alone.

SEG: Paid Ride-share Platforms


ISSUE: Contractor role

SEG: Vanpooling

Vanpooling involves a grouping of between seven and 15 people traveling in a van, and carpooling refers to groups of less than seven people traveling together in one vehicle.

SEG: Carpools - Subscription/Formal

Examples of technology-enabled ridesharing companies are BlaBlaCar, Carma Carpool, Scoop, and Waze Carpool. These services usually require participants to join either through a membership, website, or mobile application. Potential drivers and riders can then post driving routes or preferred travel routes and the ridesharing service will connect riders with passengers that share similar origin destination pairings.

SEG: Carpools - Casual, Flexible

Casual carpooling is an informal form of commuter ridesharing operating in Washington, D.C.; Houston, Texas; and San Francisco, California. Casual carpooling has been in existence for over 30 years, is entirely run informally by its users, and does not use a mobile application or information communication technology. In one study in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2014, researchers interviewed, observed, and surveyed participants at multiple casual carpooling locations. The study found that motivations for casual carpooling participation include: convenience, time savings, and monetary savings, while environmental and community-based motivations ranked low. Casual carpooling is an efficient transportation option for these commuters, while environmental sustainability benefits are a positive byproduct. Seventy-five percent of casual carpool users were previously public transit riders, and over 10% formerly drove alone.

SEG: Microtransit - Shuttle, Commercial Vanpooling

Microtransit is a technology-enabled private transit service that often uses shuttles or vans and is characterized by flexible scheduling, flexible routing, or both. Current microtransit operators include Chariot (acquired by Ford in September 2016) and Via. Defunct operators include Bridj and Leap Transit. Two forms of microtransit have emerged, including fixed-route with fixed-schedule services and flexible-route with on-demand scheduling.


Both Chariot and Via conform to the IRS “transit pass” standard, allowing them to qualify for pre-tax commuter benefits paid for by companies.

Problem: Public Transit Integration of Vanpooling failed due to Lack of Marketing

Microtransit services have also gained interest among some public transit operators, who see the technology as an opportunity to provide higher quality or more flexible public transit services to their users. Public-private microtransit partnerships have the potential to improve service and increase public transit ridership, but steps must be taken to appropriately evaluate demand for the service before launching.

  • Ride KC failed due to Lack of Marketing. In some instances, like the (now defunct) RideKC: Bridj pilot project in Kansas City, Missouri, public-private partnerships have been formed to provide microtransit services. The RideKC: Bridj pilot ultimately ceased operations as it failed to attract enough riders, with only nine percent of riders taking more than 10 trips. The lack of a targeted marketing campaign, relatively high vehicle ownership rates in Kansas City, and low existing public transit mode share in the city were possible reasons for the low ridership of the pilot project.

Chariot Vanpooling

Chariot, which started in San Francisco and now operates in Austin, New York, and Seattle, functions similarly to public transit and runs 15-seater vans along pre-determined routes. Chariot determines new routes by “crowdsourcing” potential customer demand and then launching a new route once enough demand is indicated.

Via Vanpooling

Via is an example of flexible route, on-demand microtransit and currently operates in New York City, Washington DC, and Chicago. In New York City, users request a ride using Via's app and a shared van will pick them up with other travelers heading in a similar direction. The service is dynamic, without static routes, and shifts routes based on expected traffic and rider demand. Via charges a fare of $5 to $7 per ride in New York City, depending on the method of booking.

Transportation network company TNCs - On-demand Taxi hailing, Ridesourcing like Uber and Lyft


On-demand ride services include ridehailing, ridesplitting, and E-hail for taxis. They are services that provide rides on-demand, usually in passenger cars, for a fee. Transportation experts have called these services "ridesourcing" or "ridehailing" to distinguish these services from ridesharing and to clarify that drivers do not share a destination with their passengers.

"Transportation network company" is a regulatory classification coined by the California Public Utilities Commission in 2013, and it has been subsequently used by other U.S. states to refer to services like Lyft and Uber.

Why: Last Two Mile for Public Transit enabling!

Market Structure, The impact and usage are VERY city-specific

The differences suggest that travel behavior impacts due to these services could be dependent on location.

  1. A study of ridehailing users in San Francisco in 2014 evaluated modal shifts due to ridehailing and found that, if ridehailing were unavailable, 39% of respondents would have taken a taxi and 33% would have used a form of public transit. Four percent entered a public transit station as their origin or destination, suggesting ridehailing may serve as a first-/last-mile trip to or from public transit in some cases.

  2. In Denver and Boulder, Colorado found that a third of respondents would have taken public transit, biked, or walked instead of using a ridehailing service. Another third would have driven in a personal vehicle, and 12% would not have made the trip.

Problem: Greater Urban Congestion NOT LESS - Why?

These companies have faced criticism for adversely impacting traffic congestion, the environment

Only New York City and San Francisco have studied the vehicle miles traveled (VMT) implications of ridehailing services. Both studies found that Uber and Lyft are increasing VMT, with the heaviest impacts seen in some of the busiest areas of each city. However, both of these studies do not take into consideration modal shift changes.

Problem: Rapes and public safety.

SEG: Point-to-Point Mobile Phone Dominates

TNCs mostly include point-to-point on-demand rides, typically hailed, coordinated, and paid for via smartphone and from drivers using their own personal vehicles.

SEG: Ride Pooling/Sharing

Ridesplitting involves splitting both a ride and fare in a vehicle with others traveling in the same general direction.

These services allow dynamic matching and route variation in real-time as passengers request pickups. The user cost of ridesplitting services is lower than the cost of regular ridesourcing services, since the riders are sharing one ride and splitting the associated costs. Ridesplitting services are generally only available as an option in cities with denser and more established ridesourcing markets.

SEG: E-Hail Services built on Approved Taxis

E-Hail services are a mode of transportation by which taxis can be reserved via Internet or mobile phone applications maintained by either a third-party provider or the taxi company.

In response to competition from ridesourcing companies, e-Hail taxi services have experienced rapid growth. As of October 2014, 80% of San Francisco taxis reported using Flywheel, an e-Hail app.

As of February 2015, Flywheel was active in six cities, and Curb was active in about 60 U.S. cities.

Since they use taxis, e-Hail services charge local taxi rates and do not use demand-based pricing during periods of higher ride demand, as ridesourcing services often do.

Global Market Size, Share and Companies

Uber, Postmates, Uber-Eats

As of August 2017, 2 million people drive for Uber every week.







Easy Taxi


Curb Ehail

As of February 2015, Curb was active in about 60 U.S. cities.

Flywheel Ehail USA

As of October 2014, 80% of San Francisco taxis reported using Flywheel, an e-Hail app. As of February 2015, Flywheel was active in six cities.

Arro Ehail

Hailo Ehail

iTaxi Ehail

Carsharing and Companies

Carsharing Overview

Carsharing refers to a model of vehicle sharing where users access cars on an as-needed basis, and often pay by time of reservation or miles driven.

Reduces Car Ownership

A 2004 study on City CarShare in San Francisco, CA found that nearly 30% of members reduced car ownership by one of more cars; two-thirds of members reported that they opted not to purchase an additional vehicle. This reduced car ownership typically translates into reduced driving, and thus lowered energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

Go from 2 to 1 car households

Esp. in Cities like SFO, NYC

Impact mixed mode transit in complex ways

Carsharing programs also affect usage patterns of other travel modes. A 2011 study by UC Berkeley researchers found that roundtrip carsharing has a mixed impact on public transit and non-motorized modal use, with the same proportion of respondents increasing and decreasing usage of these modes.

The impact on carpooling and non-motorized transportation, however, was found to be positive.

Car Sharing Reduces Climate Emissions

The same study documented a 27% to 43% reduction in vehicle miles traveled and a 34% to 41% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions among households due to roundtrip carsharing.

SEG: Roundtrip Carsharing

Roundtrip carsharing like Zipcar's is one of the earliest carsharing models for easy administration and granting members access to a shared vehicle fleet.

It requires users to return to the same location where they accessed the vehicle.

There have been numerous studies that document behavioral changes associated with roundtrip carsharing programs.

SEG: One-Way Carsharing - 35%

One-way carsharing varies from roundtrip carsharing in that it grants members more flexibility in pickup and dropoff location. In one-way carsharing—also known as point-to-point carsharing—members can access a vehicle at one location and end their trip in another location.

As of January 2015, about 35% of North American carsharing fleets were one-way capable. A 2016 study of one-way carsharing operator, car2go, in five North American cities found that 2% to 5% of members sold a vehicle, and 7% to 10% postponed a vehicle purchase due to their carsharing membership.

Estimated VMT impacts due to carsharing ranged from −6% to −16% per car2go household, and GHG emissions changed by −4% to −18%.

SEG: Personal Vehicle Sharing (PVS) and P2P Carsharing

Personal vehicle sharing (PVS) is a carsharing service model that allows short-term access to privately owned vehicles. Peer-to-peer (P2P) carsharing, a subset of PVS, employs privately owned vehicles made available for shared usage by members of a P2P member base.

P2P carsharing companies differ from other carsharing operators in that users provide the free-floating vehicle fleet using their personally owned vehicles.

As of May 2015, there were eight active P2P operators in North America.[1] One 2014 study found that the top three reasons for using peer-to-peer carsharing are convenience and availability, monetary savings, and expanded mobility options.

Another study documented that personal vehicle sharing services can expand the geographic range of vehicle sharing services by renting underused autos and therefore lowering vehicle usage requirements. However, fear of sharing personal assets was cited as one of the primary barriers to the adoption of P2P sharing services.

Market Share

North-American Market Share

As of January 2015, there were 23 carsharing operators in the U.S. amounting to over 1.1 million members and over 16,000 vehicles.

As of January 2017, there were 39 carsharing organizations in North America serving 1.9 million members with a collective fleet of 24,629 vehicles. (these numbers do not include P2P carsharing; they include roundtrip and one-way carsharing operations.).

Global Market Size Share

Carsharing services are available in over 1,000 cities in several countries.

ZipCar - 1 way and Original 2-way

One of the largest North American-based roundtrip carsharing operators is Zipcar, which operates more than 12,000 vehicles in urban areas on college campuses and at airports across the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Spain, France, Belgium, Turkey and Taiwan.

Car2go - 1 way

GIG - 1 way

ReachNow - 1 way

BlueIndy - 1 way

Getaround - P2P Carsharing

Turo (formerly RelayRides) - P2P Carsharing

India Shared Mobility Market

Market structure

  • BPO sector heavily uses B2B car pools driven by independent drivers to ferry employees around.

Rapes, Passenger Safety an issue in For Hire

India's car rental industry - hurting 2018-2020

  • Ups and downs
  • Launched 2012
  • hurting 2018-2019
  • Demand cut dramatically in 2020 on Covid-19

Investors/VCs pull funding as tired of loss based growth pain intolerable

New BM$ experimented - seeking sustainable revenue model - subscriptions - franchise

  • $8-$9 billion car rental industry in India in 2016

    • Has 1m car fleet in 2016 - to grow to 1.5m by 2020
    • Bulk used and paid for by corporates not individuals
  • 30% B2B segment (corporate)

    • CAGR of 16%-17% and estimated to grow to be alone worth at $3 billion in 2019
    • Carzonrent hopes to grab 10% share.
    • Fleet a car pool of around 200,000 on the road
  • Brand Names - Hertz bankrupted in 2020-mid. Avis is small.

Hailing Payments an issue as Foreign payments blocked in India

Car sharing franchisee platforms haven't scaled in India

PROBLEM: However, the ZAP and Drivezy car sharing franchisee platforms have NOT scaled. “For this model to succeed on the supply side, you first need a lot of people who own cars to go and list on the platform at least during the weekend," - Zoomcar investor

PROBLEM: Too much risk for car owners to "rent" in high demand - cleaning, etc.

SOLUTION: Long term rentals - avoiding buying = Leasing fleets. - Zoomcar introduced a subscription option in 2018 wherein users could subscribe to a car for a period of 6, 12, 18, and 24 months.


Supreme Court had banned non-CNG taxis in NCR from May 1, 2016 to fight pollution (car rentals considered in that category)

Also diesel vehicles = common in corporate B2B car fleets - have been banned as found to contribute most to air pollution.

SC mandated specifically that All-India Tourist permit cars (AITP) only ferry tourists not high-rate BPO employees point-to-point between NCR/Gurgaon/Noida.

CABS: Uber, Ola,Mero


  • 2020 sold its India food delivery business to Zomato
  • To enter self-driving car rentals and shuttle bus services platform strategic partnerships with sourcing from Drivezy, Zoomcar, Bounce and Revv
  • Uber is already partnering with middlemen such as tours and travel operators - leveraging fragmented nature of industry

  • Uber has avoided owning vehicles and the new sourcing model will help it avoid asset management costs

Ola Cabs

Meru Cabs

Franchisee Car sharing like Zipcar

Zoomcar, India -

  • USP was removing the cost of procuring vehicles.

  • 2012 launched self-drive car rental service - more like regular rental services in the West

  • April 2016 Zoomcar Associate Program (ZAP) for private vehicle owners—individuals, fleet operators, dealers, etc.—could list their own cars on car sharing

  • 2019 Zoomcar cut short their sought after $500m funding round for Series-D down to only $100m

  • 2020 said secured $30 m in a "Pre-series" round led by Sony Innovation Fund, with plans to raise another $70 million soon.
  • PKJ: Looks like it is running short of money and needed some funding fast

  • 2020 Zoomcar looking for strategic merger with competitor Revv of Gurgaon

Revv of Gurgaon - franchise

Drivezy, India

  • 2019 Launched, Allowed private owners to list directly on the platform.
  • 2019 $100m funding fell-through from SoftBank and Amazon
  • 2020 cut fund seeking in half just $35m @$135m valuation down from $200m - problem may run out of runway before gets funds

Car rental, leasing, taxi

70%+ Unorganized B2B Rental, Local Companies, India

It offered chauffeur driven cars on hire, primarily to corporate clients in initial founding, then expanded to self-drive rentals. The company’s gross margins are roughly 30% and 10% net profits. It is investing from internal funding FCF. - 65% of revenues come from corporate car rentals (often on leases), 20% from EasyCabs - radio taxi cabs, and 15% from Myles self-drive rentals.


  • 2000 Founded by Rajiv Kumar Vij in 2000.
  • 2001 won the exclusive India franchisee rights for the American car rental firm Hertz - leasing out 50 cars
  • 2005 Hertz scaled presence to 750 cars, commenced leasing services to corporate clients.
  • 2006 launched its radio taxi service EasyCabs in the New Delhi - first to offer BOTH car leasing and taxi services
  • 2013 launched self-drive car rental service Myles - more like regular rental services in the West
  • 2015 To invest Re 500 cr in new technology at Bangalore R&D center. Grow engineer-count in its development centre from 50 to 200
  • 2015 Collab with Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation (IRCTC) to bundle rail tickets, book rental cars
  • 2015 FY earned a revenue of 300 crore (USD $40m), claims it can hit around 2,400 crore (USD $323m) by 2019.
  • 2016 Carzonrent, which currently provides rental services to over 600 corporates across its 39 cities

Rollups strategy

Strategy for acquisition, rollup strategy to counter tiny rental companies to build the position of an aggregator and bring consolidation in the industry in the next five years.

  • Problem is organized segment is only 10,000 of Re 25,000 crore by 2019
  • In 2016 had 6500 cars, to expand to 30,000 cars by 2019

Technology - security, monitoring of cars

  • For its standard car rentals, it has a
    • driver’s application - chauffeur
    • a consumer application
    • Ensure constant tracking throughout the country
      • Monitoring - a National Command Centre in Delhi has 200 people currently
      • IOT hardware in cars which helps us track them and each transaction done can also be traced nationally via monitoring center

The new tech backbone has helped the company acquire some large corporates and get additional business from existing clients said CEO Vij.

Bicycle-Sharing systems and Companies

Bicycle-sharing systems Overview

Bicycle-sharing systems allow users to access and use a shared fleet of bicycles, typically located within a given spatial boundary.

These systems are mostly concentrated in cities or other urban areas and bikes or stations are normally unattended and always accessible. This availability during most or all of the day makes bikesharing an on-demand mobility option.

Timeline, Key Factors

  • 1965 - The first bike sharing system debuted in Amsterdam in 1965, under the name ‘White Bikes.’ The bicycles were left unlocked around the city to be used by anyone in need of transportation.

  • mid-2000s Bikesharing systems have since exploded in popularity due to advances in information technology (IT) that have improved bikesharing communications and tracking.

  • 2016, there were 99 U.S. cities with technology-enabled public bikesharing systems, with approximately 32,200 bikes and 3,400 stations.

SEG: Public bikesharing (docked and dockless/free floating)

Most bikesharing systems are public and allow anyone to access a bicycle for a fee, typically in daily, monthly or annual membership fees. Public bikesharing programs can be station-based (docked), or dockless (also known as free floating).

Dockless systems are deployed within a geo-fenced area. Dockless systems were first introduced in Germany in the early 2000s via the Call a Bike program.

SEG: Closed campus bikesharing

SEG: Peer-to-Peer (P2P) bikesharing

E-bikes a key factor - for longer distances, uphill

E-bikesharing systems (or Pedlec) have also been growing in popularity, particularly in Europe. Studies have been conducted that analyze bikesharing impacts on modal shift.

Impact on Cities

Lower short-trip Public Transit high use

A 2014 UC Berkeley study suggests that in larger cities, bikesharing programs remove riders from crowded or high-use bus transit systems. Those living in larger cities report decreased rail usage as a result of increased cost savings and reduced travel times.

Improve Access to Public Transit - Last 2 miles

In smaller cities, bikesharing improves access from bus lines, filling in gaps in the public transit system.

Lower private car use

The UCB study also found that half of the bikesharing members surveyed reduced their personal vehicle usage due to bikesharing.

Bikesharing Companies


Jump by Social Bicycles

Social Bicycles began testing an e-bikesharing program, called Jump, in San Francisco in Summer 2017.





Scooter-sharing systems and Companies


Scootersharing is a recent application of the sharing economy within the transportation space. Scootersharing companies took inspiration from the fourth generation bikesharing strategy, but replaced bicycles with GPS-tracked electric scooters. These scooters are also “dockless”, and are dropped off and picked up from any location within an urban area.

Due to the lower speed of scooters and their electric assistance it is easier commuters to use and for companies to invest in a fleet of them.

Many scootersharing companies have been founded in the past few years.

Why - no need to learn to bike!

Problem: Liability - too easy to create liability on sidewalks

Cities that enforced similar regulations cite how scooters are more commonly ridden on sidewalks instead of bike lanes and could injure pedestrians.

Problem: Safety Gear like Helmets

These companies enforcing riders to wear safety gear such as helmets.

Cities banning

Because of its growing popularity, some cities have also looked to ban certain scootersharing companies, taking on similar strategies to ridesharing bans.

San Francisco

The city created a Powered Scooter Share Permit Program that limits the number of companies that could operate scooters, and the amount of scooters.

Bird Scooters




Scoot Networks


Compared to the other forms of shared mobility, scootersharing can be more hyper-localized and can hypothetically better address the last mile problem. Because scootersharing does not have much market adoption right now because it is a new form of transportation, there are no academic studies that can effectively measure its impact. Overall, it provides urban mobility with fewer carbon emissions compared to automobiles. They take up less space than bikes, so they have potential to increase transit ridership to and from bus lines.

Package, CNS, Grocery Delivery


Courier Network Services (CNS) provide delivery services of packages, food, and other items for compensation using their own transportation and are connected with shippers and customers through an online app or platform. In peer-to-peer (P2P) delivery services, someone who signs up and is approved by the platform can use their own vehicle or bicycle to conduct a delivery. There are many business models within P2P delivery services.

The proliferation of these services, where couriers use their personally owned vehicles or bicycles, could reduce the need for delivery companies to maintain and own their own delivery fleet.

Some CNS models that have emerged also incorporate on-demand ride services (e.g., TNCs) that deliver packages. CNS deliveries are either made in separate trips or in multiple-purpose trips that may also serve passengers simultaneously. Sidecar and Uber have incorporated passenger, food delivery, and package delivery services.

Postmates acq by Uber

Postmates couriers make deliveries using their own bicycles, scooters, or cars. They charge a delivery fee plus a service charge of nine percent of the value of the goods being delivered.


Instacart delivers groceries for a $4 to $10 fee, depending on how long the delivery takes to complete.



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