Silicon Valleys around the World and Universities

By pjain      Published May 24, 2021, 8:56 p.m. in blog Startups   

Silicon Valleys - What, Why they work?



1. The Original Silicon Valley

Silicon Valley is now a broad definition referring to high-tech businesses in the entire Bay Area.

  1. Silicon Valley: Originating in Stanford University (Palo Alto and Menlo Park), and spreading south towards San Jose, California and suburbs. San Francisco and nearby areas including Berkeley and Oakland are technically not part of Silicon Valley but have seen growth in industries such as web development since the 90s and venture capital. San Jose is Silicon Valley's largest city, the third-largest in California, and the tenth-largest in the United States; other major Silicon Valley cities include Sunnyvale, Santa Clara, Redwood City, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Menlo Park, and Cupertino.

  2. San Francisco and southeastern San Mateo County

  3. Oakland, East Bay through Berkeley, San Ramon to Livermore and Pleasanton.

The Silicon Valley name comes from Silicon wafers used to make VLSI chips. It was in Silicon Valley that the silicon-based integrated circuit, the microprocessor, and the microcomputer, among other technologies, were developed. It has maintained dominance for decades in core industries such as microprocessor development.

The area is now home to many of the world's largest high-tech corporations, including the headquarters of more than 30 businesses in the Fortune 1000, and thousands of startup companies.

It remains as a center of software and apps development as, Silicon Valley, home to bigtech now as the FAAMNGT acronym represents 25% of stock value of entire USA. 1. Facebook 2. Apple 3. Amazon has many facilities here, even though HQ is Seattle 4. Microsoft 5. Netflix 6. Google 7. Tesla - HQ moved out to Texas, but majority of US production remains here.

VC Center of the World

Silicon Valley also accounts for one-third of all of the venture capital investment in the United States, which has helped it to become a leading hub and startup ecosystem for high-tech innovation.

Want Experienced Workers - Come to Silicon Valley!

As of 2013, the region employed about a quarter of a million information technology workers

Housing Crisis

Silicon Valley has a severe housing shortage, caused by the market imbalance between jobs created and housing units built: from 2010 to 2015, many more jobs have been created than housing units built. (400,000 jobs, 60,000 housing units) This shortage has driven home prices extremely high, far out of the range of production workers. As of 2016 a two-bedroom apartment rented for about $2,500 while the median home price was about $1 million. Silicon Valley the most expensive U.S. housing region.

NIMBY, Homelessness, Poor Public Transport, Gridlock

Homelessness is a problem with housing beyond the reach of middle-income residents; there is little shelter space other than in San Jose which, as of 2015, was making an effort to develop shelters by renovating old hotels.

High cost of living

Due to the success of the industries in this region.

Although, this rift between high and low salaries is driving many residents out who can no longer afford to live there. In the Bay Area, the number of residents planning to leave within the next several years has had an increase of 35% since 2016, from 34% to 46%.

2. New York

Silicon Alley,Manhattan, NY City

Encompasses Broadway, the Flatiron District, SoHo, and TriBeCa technology centers

Silicon Alley: New York City

Tech Valley: The Capital District area of Albany, NY

3. Texas

Silicon Hills: Austin, Texas and its suburbs

Silicon Prairie: Metropolitan Dallas

4. Northeast esp. Boston

Route 128: Eastern Massachusetts

5. Southwest - Nevada, Colorado, Utah

Silicon Slopes - Salt Lake City, Utah

Including Utah County (Provo, Utah) and Summit County (Park City, Utah) and surrounding areas.

Tech Coast: broadly Southern California, Silicon Beach refers to emergent Santa Monica-LAX tech cluster.

Telecom Corridor (an area in the Silicon Prairie): Richardson, suburb of Dallas, Texas Texas Medical Center: Houston, Texas

Greater Reno, Nevada

Optics Valley: Tucson, Arizona

Denver Tech Center: Denver, Colorado

Silicon Beach: Playa Vista in West Los Angeles

6. Portland and Greater Seattle Cluster

One of the largest tech clusters in the world

Silicon Forest: Portland, Oregon

Big Tech Companies

  • home to two of the largest & wealthiest Big Fours:
  • Microsoft

  • Amazon,

  • Boeing,

  • Starbux

  • Nintendo

  • Most major tech players have significant presence and research centers in Greater Seattle. Others in video/online game, aerospace, aviation, fintech, technology investment, funds, venture capital, as well as various research & technology centers

University Centers

University of Washington and Puget Sound vicinity is also home to many R&D and Innovative companies.

Life Sciences

Large numbers of notable companies & startups in Life Sciences, biotechnology, medical

7. Midwest, Chicago, Ohio, Auto-Land

Illinois Technology and Research Corridor: DuPage County, Illinois

Automation Alley: Metropolitan Detroit, primarily Oakland County, Michigan

Golden Corridor: Near Chicago's O'Hare International Airport and Northwest Suburbs

8. Eastern Seaboard

Dulles Technology Corridor: Northern Virginia near Washington Dulles Airport

Research Triangle: Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill, North Carolina, centered on Research Triangle Park

9. Southeast

Cummings Research Park: Huntsville, Alabama

Silicon Peach: Atlanta, Georgia


Silicon Valley of the North, Ontario, CA

Highway 401 between Toronto and Waterloo. A related area was also promoted as Canada's Technology Triangle.

Silicon Valley North: Ottawa, Ontario, CA

Though questionable since the 2009 bankruptcy of Nortel and the 2008 pull-out of Dell's call centre

Silicon Vineyard, Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, CA

Montréal Technoparc: Montréal, Québec, CA

UK, Ireland, Scotland

Dublin, Ireland aka Silicon Docks

It has a high number of technological EMEA centers.

Cambridge Cluster, UK

The name given to the region around Cambridge, England, which is home to a large cluster of high-tech businesses focusing on software, electronics and biotechnology, among others AstraZeneca. Many of these businesses have connections with the University of Cambridge, and the area is now one of the most important technology centres in Europe

Oxford Science Park: Oxford

Silicon Corridor: M4 corridor, Reading, Berkshire

Silicon Fen: Cambridge

Silicon Glen: in Central Scotland

Silicon Gorge: Bristol

Silicon Roundabout: London

Silicon Spa: Leamington Spa

Cambridge Norwich Tech Corridor

Germany Promotes SME Hidden Gems

Affordable Real Estate, Strong Public Transport Systems in Germany

While tech booms usually lead to increased real-estate prices, Berlin had so much affordable property available that companies and their employees were able to easily snap up spaces, Monteiro reported. With such affordability, the city has been able to easily attract global talent.

Strong Multi-national Ethos - Everyone knows English!

Brexit Rush. A number of UK tech startups relocated to the relatively cheap city following Brexit, which could inhibit their ability to access the European market and make it difficult for them to hire.

Munich (Isar Valley)

IT cluster Rhine-Main-Neckar, Germany

Europe's largest software cluster, is globally dominant in business software, IT security research and biopharmaceuticals

Berlin or Silicon Allee - Center of Creative Media

One of Europe's most dynamic technology, IT and startup centers

Berlin's startup scene grew so rapidly after 2015, setting it on track to become one of Europe's leading ecosystems. The city accounted for 70% of total investments in German startups in 2017, and it was named a banner year for startups by Ernst & Young.

Berlin is "home to a mixture of hackers, privacy experts, scientists, and video companies that are making waves in the tech scene."

  1. Apple

  2. Facebook

  3. Home to local success stories like music streaming service SoundCloud and to-do list App Wunderlist.

  4. Google opened its "Campus Berlin" tech hub in 2017.

Munich (Isar Valley)

Dresden (Silicon Saxony)

Kaiserslautern (Silicon Woods)

Dortmund (Ruhr Valley)


Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania: BioCon Valley for its life science and biotechnology clusters

Western Pomerania (IT Lagoon)

WISTA (Science and Technology Park in Berlin-Adlershof)

Europe Other

TOP: Lisbon, Portugal - Cost Effective, Easier to Hire, High Lifestyle

Lisbon, Portugal, has an emerging startup scene thanks to accelerator funding and plenty of coworking spaces. Lisbon's startup scene emerged five to 10 years ago — today, it's set to become a leading tech hub in Europe, according to Mansion Global.

In 2016, the Portuguese government created a national network of tech hubs and startups in Lisbon thanks to the StartUP Voucher initiative, which offers a yearlong fellowship to 400-plus entrepreneurs. They also set up a $225 million venture capital fund to increase foreign investment in startups.

From 2014 to 2016, 700 companies in the high-tech industry were established in Lisbon. Lisbon has 32 tech scale-ups — companies that have raised just under $1 million (USD), which make up nearly half of the companies in the city

A former army food factory will be reconstructed into a huge startup campus, Hub Creativo Beato, and Google recently announced plans to launch an innovation center just outside the city (date unknown), according to Mansion Global.

Tech workers are revitalizing Lisbon's rundown buildings in up-and-coming areas, transforming them into hubs and coworking spaces, as well as affordable places to live.

Stockholm, Sweden

Stockholm, Sweden, is home to plenty of coders and unicorns, leading the tech industry in Scandinavia/

Software heavy as coders comprise 18% of the workforce.

It produces the highest number of unicorns per capita of any global city outside of Silicon Valley as per Forbes, and it was ranked the second-most prolific tech hub in the world by VC firm Atomico.

2009 Stockholm's tech scene emerged

2014 investment in the city's technology industry tripled to roughly $377 m to more than 22,000 companies

The city has birthed successful global companies - music-streaming service Spotify - gaming company King.

The booming tech industry has benefited from the Swedish government's investment in high-speed internet, and its daycare system, which enables flexibility for entrepreneurial families.


Ideon Science Park: Lund, Sweden

Geneva, Switzerland

Globally dominant in particle physics at CERN and various frontier scientific & technology research Dulles Technology Corridor is globally dominant in telecom, satellite, and defense industries

Crypto Valley: Zug, Switzerland


Otaniemi: near Helsinki

Resources, Organizations

Startup Europe


China not R&D Parks but Special Economic Zones

Provincial Sponsored

Rapid Rising Costs of Living in Best Tech Centers of China

In tech centers like Shenzhen's urbanization is driving a boom in luxury property developments while also changing what luxury looks like — smaller properties focusing on amenities and convenience are being favored over villas and townhouses. Shenzhen is now one of the top five cities in the world with the most expensive housing

Hong Kong Financial Center - Seed for FDI and Exports to Rest of World

Chinese Greater Bay

Shenzhen is a key part of the Chinese government's Greater Bay Area initiative, a project to develop technology and innovation growth in the country to rival California's Silicon Valley, reported BBC.

Billionaires, Recycling Wealth to Spin off More Startups

The tech scene is contributing to a rise in wealth among some of its residents.

Shenzhen is a big part of the reason that China has been minting new billionaires at a rate of one per week.

TOP: Shenzhen: Shenzhen Hi-Tech Industrial Park

Shenzhen "China's Silicon Valley."

It has more than 14,000 high-tech firms, 3,000 of which alone were established in 2018.

Shenzhen's tech industry accounts for nearly 40% of the city's GDP.

There are five tech giants fueling Shenzhen's tech hub, and two of them — Tencent Holdings and Huawei Technologies — collectively employ 234,000 people.

Jing-Jin-Ji: Beijing-Tianjin-Shijiazhuang Hi-Tech Industrial Belt

Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing

Chengdu, Sichuan: Chengdu Tianfu Software Park

Dalian, Liaoning: Dalian Hi-Tech Zone, Dalian Software Park

Shenyang: Hunnan New Area

Shanghai: Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park

Asia and Pacific Tigers ex India,China

---- S. Korea Chaebol over Startups?

Daedeok Science Town, Daejeon

Digital Media City, Seoul

LG Science Park, Seoul

Pangyo Techno Valley, the Silicon Valley of South Korea

Samsung Town, Seoul

Songdo, Incheon

Teheran Valley, Seoul

---- Taiwan as Center of R&D

Hsinchu Science Park: Greater Hsinchu City and Hsinchu County, Taiwan

The dominant area worldwide for pure-play semiconductor foundry market

Central Taiwan Science Park: Changhua County, Nantou County, Taichung City and Yunlin County

Southern Taiwan Science Park: Kaohsiung City and Tainan City

Nankang Software Park: Taipei City

Neihu High Tech Science Park: Taipei City

Singapore Science Park

The southwestern corner of Singapore

Israel - Startup Nation

Israel has become one of the world leaders in bio technology, cyber technology, artificial intelligence, online games, and high-tech agriculture.

Called Startup Nation as It's home to more startups per capita than any other country

VC hub

It attracts more venture capital per person.

Recycling Billions to Startups

There have been extremely successful Israeli companies making extremely successful wealthy Israelis

  • WAZE 1b. Google recently bought GPS navigation app Waze — local to Tel Aviv — for $1 billion, and Amazon opened an office in Tel Aviv in October.

  • Mobile-Eye $18b

Rising Living Costs, High Luxury

The country has gone through a real revolution, which has fueled a demand for luxury houses and apartments. - Now Tel Aviv real estate is the most expensive in Israel.

Tel Aviv Center of Israel R&D - Silicon Wadi

An area with a high concentration of high-tech industries in the coastal plain in Israel.

The Tel Aviv/Mediterranean Coastal Region: referred to as Silicon Wadi, an area with a high concentration of high-tech industries in the coastal plain in Israel. Israel as a whole country has strong innovation in Cyber Security, Agritech and more.

The Silicon Wadi area covers much of the country, although especially high concentrations of hi-tech industry can be found in the area around Tel Aviv, including small clusters around the cities of Ra'anana, Petah Tikva, Herzliya, Netanya, the academic city of Rehovot and its neighbour Rishon Le Zion.

Multinational tech companies like Google, Oracle, and Facebook have research centers in or near the city, which also serves as a home for a plethora of successful local tech companies.

Haifa Cluster

Caesarea Clusters

Jerusalem Technology Park, Malha

Har Hotzvim and JVP Media Quarter in Talpiot


Yehud hosts Hewlett Packard Enterprise's software campus ( and other IT and High Tech companies including Ticomsoft, Flame-Ware Solutions, RegiSoft, Fenavic, Bgate, and BYON IT Solutions.

Yokneam Illit or Startup Village, Israel

With over 100 high-tech companies concentrated in a small area that is nicknamed "Startup Village" * Startup Village Ecosystem in the Yokneam area.

Mideast and Africa


Riyadh Techno Valley, Riyadh

Dhahran Techno-Valley, Dhahran

King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh

Silicon Cape: Cape Town, South Africa

Silicon Lagoon: Lagos, Nigeria

Silicon Mountain: Buea, Cameroon

Silicon Savannah: Nairobi, Kenya

Rest of the World, AU, NZ

Australian Technology Park, Eveleigh, Sydney, NSW Australia

Digital Harbor, Docklands, Melbourne, Victoria Australia

Macquarie Park, Sydney, NSW Australia

Including the Research Park, Macquarie University

Technology Park, Bentley, Perth, Western Australia

Curtin University


Software Technology Parks of India

South India and Bangalore

Electronics City, Bangalore

International Tech Park, Bangalore

Manyata Embassy Business Park, Bangalore

Hyderabad, Telegana, AP

HITEC City: Hyderabad

Sricity, Andhra Pradesh: near Tirupati

IKP-Alexandria Biotech Knowledge Park: Hyderabad

Cyberabad: Hyderabad

Maharashtra and Mumbai

Pune: Cyber City, Hinjawadi, Magarpatta

Knowledge Corridor: between Pune and Mumbai

Chennai, TN

IT Corridor, Mahindra World City, New Chennai


Automotive Corridor

EMS Corridor

SEZ Corridor

Chennai ITIR

Entertainment Corridor


Tidel Park

Olympia Tech Park

International Tech Park, Chennai

Ramanujan IT City

Ambattur Industrial Estate

Guindy Industrial Estate

World Trade Center



Irungattukottai Industrial Park

Sriperumbudur Industrial Park

Oragadam Industrial Growth Center

Ennore SEZ

NCR, Delhi India Parks and Centers

Cyber City, Gurgaon, Haryana: near Delhi

Noida, Uttar Pradesh


Delhi IT Park : Delhi

UP, Bihar, WB, Orissa

IT City, Lucknow

MIHAN: Nagpur

Infovalley, Bhubaneswar

InfoPark, Kochi


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