Vedic, Jaina and Buddhist History
- ==== Core Text ONLY - just the facts - Unbiased Assessment
- --- Timelines - Unbiased Assessment
- Anatolia - Hittite and Mitanni 1400 BC
- Asuras and Myths - What can be learnt
- Avesta ~1800 BC
- Linguistic Analysis of Indo-Iranian vs Indo-European Languages
- Vedic Phase 1: Rigveda in depth
- Vedic Phase 2: Later Samhitas and their associated literature
- Vedic Phase 3: Upanishads and Sutras
- Jaina Canon - 3000 BC to 500 BC
- Buddhist Canon - 500 BC
- Zarathushtra Deviation 600 BC
- Alexander-Maurya Shocker 330 BC
- ==== Religious History Keys and Lessons
- Interpreting Vedic History and Current Hindu Fundamentalists Twists
- Linguistic not evidence, confusing, fails history
- The Aryan Obsession and History
- Politics and Historical distortions
==== Core Text ONLY - just the facts - Unbiased Assessment
The geography of the Avestan literature supposedly extends from Seistan to Merv but is also said to be focused in the central Afghanistan highlands. In a sense, this geographical orbit was closely familiar to the Indus Civilization, and the persistence of an Indian language tradition was not impossible in this orbit, whatever might have been the basic language of this civilization.
In a sense it is clear that Indus Civilization was the Aryan-Vedic core, and the north-west is the Afghanistan, Iran and Central Asia are all barbarian - very brutal and "different" boundary without the Himalayan protections.
--- Timelines - Unbiased Assessment
Anatolia - Hittite and Mitanni 1400 BC
Certain terms in a treaty of the Mitannis of Anatolia, dated c. 1380 BC, are clearly reminiscent of, if not identical with, some Rigvedic gods like Indra, Varuna and others, and some unmistakably Sanskritic terms occur in a Mitanni horse-training text of about the same period
The discovery of Aryan looking names of (Mitanni) princes on cuneiform documents in Akkadian from the second half of the second millennium BC (chiefly tablets from Bogazkoy and El-Amarna), several doubtlessly Aryan words in Kikkulis treatise in Hittite on horse training - numerals:aika- one, tera- three, panza- five, satta - seven, na(ya) nine - appellatives: varttana circuit, course (in which horses move when being trained), aliya horse), - series of names of Aryan divinities on a Mitanni-Hatti and a Hatti-Mitanni treaty (14th century BC) poses a number of problems that have been reportedly discussed since the beginning of the century. -P. Thiemme article "Aryaní gods of the Mitanni treaties" in 1960 in Journal of the American Oriental Society 80(4): 301-17:
Options for this similarity 1. Terms can be interpreted as traces of specifically Indo-Aryan speech and religion, or whether they should rather be identified as Proto-Aryanî. He is inclined towards accepting them as ëproto-Aryaní. In addition Burrow finds a few traces of the Sanskrit language among the documents of the Kassite dynasty of Babylon (Burrow, ibid., p. 29): In a list of names of gods with Babylonian equivalents we find a sun-god Suriyas (rendered Samas) which must clearly be identified with Skt Surya. In addition, Maruttas the war-god (rendered En-Urta) has been compared with Skt Marut ... Among the kings of this dynasty one has a name which can be interpreted as Aryan: Abhirattas: abhiratha ñ ëfacing chariots in battleí. What emerges on the whole is the presence of a few Sanskritic deities and words in the old Hittite territory or modern Anatolia in about 1400 BC, with margins on either side. The similarity lies only in a few Sanskrit-sounding words in both the Kikkuli horse-training text of c. 1400 BC and the treaty between Suppiluliuma, the Hittite king of c. 1380ñ1345 BC) and Mattiwaza, th
Asuras and Myths - What can be learnt
The similarity between the Rigvedic Asura and the Avestan Ahura, although what it may specifically mean in historical terms is not clear. Why does the enemy of the gods in the Rigveda turns out to be the principal god in the Avesta.
Avesta ~1800 BC
Avesta is the famous Zorastrian text.
It has different strata of composition - a good point as these "bibles" are really anthologies. Some parts of the Avesta date from as late as the Parthian period, and the Rigveda.
The core of the Avesta has been put towards the end of the second millennium BC.
Zarathushtra has been dated as late as the 7th century BC.
Anquetil du Perron (1731-1805), the first French professional Orientalist who is known principally for his French translation of the Avesta in 1771 and Latin translation of the Upanishadas, also from a Persian translation, in 1801-02
The Avesta has several functional but chronologically disparate categories as listed below.
Khorda-Avesta - common prayer
Visparad or extensions to the liturgy
Visparad is a supplementary text to the Yasna without any unity of its own.
21 in number, are addressed to particular divinities or particular divine concepts. Thirty divinities are supposed to preside over thirty days of the month and the Siroza is supposed to be their enumeration and invocation.
Vendidad or myths
Vendidad, which varies widely in its character and chronology, enumerates various manifestations of evil spirits and ways to propitiate them.
Rituals - Code of purifications and religious observances
- Fragments which cannot be put in the rest of the categories.
The final category of Khorda Avesta is a collection of verses from the other collections. This body of literature evolved over a long length of time, some of it attributable to the historical periods of the Achaemenids (6th century BC) and the Parthians (3rd century BC to 3rd century AD). The core of the Avesta has bee
Linguistic Analysis of Indo-Iranian vs Indo-European Languages
The Rigvedic similarity with the language of the Avesta is striking and far closer than IE - Grammatically the differences are very small; - Easy Phoenetic Transforms. The chief differentiation in the earliest period lies in certain characteristic and well-defined phonetic changes which have affected Iranian on the one hand and Indo-Iranian on the other. - It is quite possible to find verses in the oldest portion of the Avesta, which simply by phonetic substitutions according to established laws can be turned into intelligible Sanskrit. - Vocabulary Similar - The greater part of the vocabulary is held in common and a large list could be provided of the words shared between the two which are absent from the rest of the Indo-European.
T. Burrow The Sanskrit Language (Delhi ed. 2001: Motilal Banarsidass
Vedic Phase 1: Rigveda in depth
Vedic Phase 2: Later Samhitas and their associated literature
Vedic Phase 3: Upanishads and Sutras
Jaina Canon - 3000 BC to 500 BC
Buddhist Canon - 500 BC
Zarathushtra Deviation 600 BC
Yasna or Yagya - the sacred liturgy and Gathas or hymns of Zarathushtra
The central portion of the Yasna is the Gatha, supposedly composed by Zarathushtra himself. Zarathushtra has been dated as late as the 7th century BC.
Alongside the Gathas is the Yasna Haptanghati or ëseven-chapter Yasna which is as old as the Gatha itself and a collection of prayers and hymns in honour of Ahura Mazda or the supreme deity, the angels, fire, water and earth.
The younger Yasna is written in prose.
Alexander-Maurya Shocker 330 BC
==== Religious History Keys and Lessons
Jains Copied Temple Traditions and Avatars
Buddhists are Nihilsts
Interpreting Vedic History and Current Hindu Fundamentalists Twists
How reliable is Vedic History
Can we Date Vedic Literature
Sequence and Evolutionary Interpretation
Astrological interpretation gives far back times
Linguistic not evidence, confusing, fails history
In particular Vedic analysis of PIE or Sanskrit fails Indian ancient history.
Languages have no "Homeland"
Linguistic Chronological dating very imperfect
Historical linguistics has not yet been able to offer on its own any chronology for the various linguistic changes and relationships between different languages. Glottochronology tried to devise such a framework but it not generally known to have been a success.
Assumed Rates of spread/change very squishy
The core problem of comparative philology or historical linguistics is that it fails as languages can spread over vast areas.
Linguistic not evidence that can be proved
Whether the similarities interpreted between different members of the IndoEuropean language family mean a core or parent language at their roots, implying in turn a common homeland, is a moot point, the veracity of which cannot be independently tested in any way. The various hypotheses which have accumulated in this regard since the germination of the idea in the late eighteenth century are essentially a mix of divergent opinions without firm and verifiable academic moorings.
None of the inferences or speculations can be either substantiated or refuted.
Stubbornly taking a stance and stick to it
There is a very wide range of speculations in this regard, which has resulted in academic labyrinths that developed over the last two hundred years or more.
It is virtually impossible to get out of it once one goes in. So politically biased historians or even academics simply have HUGE incentives to just take their favorite position and stick to it.
The Aryan Obsession and History
Aryan Invasion Theory 101
Out of India Aryan Theory 101
What is the Aryan Homeland? - Unbiased view
It has been customary for the historians to get involved in the problem of the Aryan homeland, well before analyzing Rigveda text itself.
Aryan Term is Racist, Fundamentalist
Politics and Historical distortions
Problem of Hindu Nationalism and Fundamentalism on History
Problem of Gandhi Dynasty, Muslim "Balance", Commie-JNU anti-history
British White Racism biased view
Nazism biased view
The study of the Vedic literature, especially that of the Rigveda, is closely associated with the Aryan problem