Energy Use and Sources, Oil,Gas,Coal, Renewable and Wind
Energy and Climate 101
EU Energy usage
In 2018, the EU produced around 42 % of its own energy, while 55 % was imported. In 2020 EU fossil 34% (12% coal), Renewables 40% (solar+wind=21%)
- In 2020 there was a drop in electricity demand during the COVID-19 pandemic.
- 10% up Wind and solar energy drove the growth in renewables last year, as the growth of other forms of carbon-free energy, like hydropower, stagnated. Together, wind and solar generation saw an increase of 10 percent in 2020.
- -20% Coal generation, tumbled a whopping 20 percent last year. About half of that decline was because of new wind and solar capacity, according to the report. Overall this left coal generation in 2020 at about half of what it was in 2015. National energy policies, resulting in a 32% drop in electricity generated from coal across the EU. Austria and Sweden closed their last remaining coal-fired power plants in March'20, while Spain closed its coal fleet in June'20. Portugal’s coal generation fell a whopping 95%, and Greece’s dropped by a half. In Germany, Europe’s most populous country, electricity from coal dropped 39%—the largest fall in absolute terms, representing 31 terawatt hours—mo
- +10%? Gas - The rest can be attributed to an uptick in natural gas. However, Electricity production from natural gas also dropped like from coal across the bloc, by 6%.
- -10% Nuclear energy generation also fell dramatically last year. It saw a record 10 percent drop, following the permanent closure of reactors in Sweden and Germany. Nuclear energy is projected to keep shrinking as more countries phase out their facilities, according to the report.
|Year||EU tot||Eu oil||Eu gas||EuRenew||EU coal||nuclear||overall CO2/kwh|
|2020||+10%||40%sh y+10%||-20%||226 g -30% improvement|
EU Energy Costs Vary a Lot by Country - Renewables cheaper than Fossil
With large renewable energy fleets typically enjoyed cheaper electricity than their fossil-fueled counterparts - could be due to climate penalties, also.
EU Production of Energy
- In the above is the USAGE as a 55% of total energy was imported esp oil and gas eg from Russia.
- However in 2018 local production was very different
|31%||Nuclear||Closing plants slowly|
|22%||Coal/Fossil||Falling rapidly -20% in 2020|
|9%||Gas||Russia Nord2 pushing CHEAP gas use|
|4%||Oil||No oil in EU - all imports - but for CARS => REPLACE with EVs|
Different management of Costs
LT focus leads to lower prices Denmark is by far the most advanced because it started building early, and continued building, and has a plan to 2030 to build more. The amount of investment needed is so big that companies need to know there is a market for the next half a decade or more, to transform themselves.
Policy inconsistency can lead to high energy prices on EXPENSIVE Plants In the Czech Republic they built a lot of renewables in one to two years very expensively, because they didn't attract companies to invest for the long-term. (Could there be corruption factors also?)
BUILD TO STRENGTHS U.K. Conservative government’s commitment to build 40 gigawatts of offshore wind by 2030, to capitalize on Britain’s windy coasts (total peak winter demand in the UK is only 55 gigawatts). “In Spain, where it’s obviously sunny, they stepped up to be Europe’s biggest installer of solar last year, and have big plans to increase that by 2030,” he added.
ENERGY POLICY PROBLEMS In coal-dependent Poland, wholesale electricity prices came to €40 ($46) per megawatt hour, asit really lacking a plan of ambition … you need a route off coal, to be able to plan for the coal regions so that no-one is left behind, and work on that is just starting.
Cheapest in Germany Mwh price was just €23 ($26) per megawatt hour.
Excess Renewable Production and Storage
When renewables are generating too much electricity at times of low demand. This creates negative energy prices, which are costly for operators engaged in trying to find ways to balance their grids.
You need more storage
Change market design by incentifying peak/offpeak use and bring in incentives for customers to shape their demand.
Make power plants more flexible
Ironically, perhaps the most underused flexibility in Europe is to find a way to simply turn off wind and solar when it’s not needed.
EU Climate Change Goals
The European Union 2020 a goal of roughly halving its carbon dioxide emissions by 2030 (compared to 1990 levels) and virtually eliminating them altogether by 2050. But that what UN scientists believe will keep climate change at a barely manageable level.
- Current plans are slow. Europe will need to double the speed at which it deployed renewables in 2020 to fulfill that EU commitment.
Taking all of these trends into account, Europe’s electricity in 2020 was 29 percent cleaner than it was five years ago. In 2015, each kilowatt-hour of electricity used resulted in roughly 317 grams of carbon dioxide. Now, that same amount of electricity only creates about 226 grams of CO2. And the race to get that figure down to zero is just heating up.
US Energy Production, Use and Climate goals
In 2020 US fossil 62%, Renewables 18% only - so US is way behind * US is FAR behind in wind energy which is key focus for EU which has poorer solar but rich offshore. - 30 mw Block Island Wind Farm, only started commercial operations at the end of 2016 vs 1st 1991 in EU