Wind Energy NEW

By pjain      Published July 2, 2020, 8:22 p.m. in blog Invest   

Wind Energy Trends, Market structure, Investing Tips

Biggest Turbine Makers

Siemens

  • SWT-7.0-154 Offshore
  • Gamesa 7 MW Offshore

Vestas

  • MHI 8.25 MW Offshore
  • MHI V112-3.45 MW

GE

  • Haliade 150-6 MW

Chinese Makers - going from smaller to larger

  • Haizhuang
    • 5MW (H154)
  • Dongfang Electric
    • FD77-1500
  • Envision
    • 4.2MW

Smaller Makers

  • BARD 5.0MW
  • Adwen AD 5-135
  • Senvion 5MW 48
  • Areva Multibrid M5000 5.0MW

Installed capacity

Onshore Wind Farms Key Factors

Wind increases with altitudes and open spaces due to less drag

The wind blows faster at higher altitudes because of the reduced influence of drag. The increase in velocity with altitude is most dramatic near the surface and is affected by topography, surface roughness, and upwind obstacles such as trees or buildings.

Role of Air Density

However, at higher altitudes, the power in the wind decreases proportional to the decrease in air density. Rendering significantly less efficient power extraction by the wind turbines, requiring for a higher investment for the same generation capacity at lower altitudes.

Design: Closeness of Turbine placement

How closely to space the turbines together is a major factor in wind farm design.

  1. The closer the turbines are together the more the upwind turbines block wind from their rear neighbors (wake effect).

2.But spacing turbines far apart increases the costs of roads and cables, and raises the amount of land needed to install a specific capacity of turbines.

  1. Turbine placement and spacing varies by site and wind maps.

Generally speaking manufacturers require 3.5 times the rotor diameter of the turbine between turbines as a minimum. Closer spacing is possible depending on the turbine model, the conditions at the site, and how the site will be operated.

Airflows slow down as they approach an obstacle, known as the 'blockage effect', reducing available wind power by 2% for the turbines in front of other turbines.

Design: Taller Turbines of Greater Capacity - needing fewer towers

Individual wind turbine designs continue to increase in power, resulting in fewer turbines being needed for the same total output.

Design: Work at slower Speeds/RPM

Location in Mountain Passes is Best Placement

The location is critical to the success of a wind farm. Conditions contributing to a successful wind farm location include: wind conditions, access to electric transmission, physical access, and local electricity prices.

The faster the average wind speed, the more electricity the wind turbine will generate, so faster winds are generally economically better for wind farm developments.

Onshore turbine installations in hilly or mountainous regions tend to be on ridges generally three kilometres or more inland from the nearest shoreline. This is done to exploit the topographic acceleration as the wind accelerates over a ridge. The additional wind speeds gained in this way can increase energy produced because more wind goes through the turbines. The exact position of each turbine matters, because a difference of 30 metre could potentially double output. This careful placement is referred to as 'micro-siting'.

Mountain passes are ideal locations for wind farms under these conditions. Mountain passes channel wind blocked by mountains through a tunnel like pass towards areas of lower pressure and flatter land.

Passes used for wind farms like the San Gorgonio Pass and Altamont Pass are known for their abundant wind resource capacity and capability for large-scale wind farms. These types of passes were the first places in the 1980s to have heavily invested large-scale wind farms after approval for wind energy development by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. From these wind farms, developers learned a lot about turbulence and crowding effects of large-scale wind projects previously unresearched in the U.S. due to the lack of operational wind farms large enough to conduct these types of studies on.

Costs of Safety - Withstanding Strong Gusts

While strong winds are useful for harvesting energy, strong gusts and high turbulence require stronger more expensive turbines, otherwise they risk damage. The average power in the wind is not proportional to the average wind speed, however. For this reason, the ideal wind conditions would be strong but consistent winds with low turbulence coming from a single direction.

Testing a site for precise micro-climates and Making Local wind maps

Usually sites are screened on the basis of a wind atlas, and validated with on-site wind measurements via long term or permanent meteorological-tower data using anemometers and wind vanes. Meteorological wind data alone is usually not sufficient for accurate siting of a large wind power project. Collection of site specific data for wind speed and direction is crucial to determining site potential in order to finance the project.

Local winds are often monitored for a year or more, detailed wind maps are constructed, along with rigorous grid capability studies conducted, before any wind generators are installed.

Impact on Rural Landscapes

Wind farms tend to have much less impact on the environment than many other power stations. Onshore wind farms are also criticized for their visual impact and impact on the landscape, as typically they need to take up more land than other power stations and need to be built in wild and rural areas, which can lead to "industrialization of the countryside", habitat loss, and a drop in tourism.

Critics have linked wind farms to adverse health effects (see wind turbine syndrome). Wind farms have also been criticized for interfering with radar, radio and television reception.

Offshore Wind Farms Key Factors

Clean Climate Politics - Wind, Gas, PV have heavy backers

The makers of Wind equipment are mostly in Europe.

Europe offshore leader

So it is not a surprise that "Clean" Climate politics are heavily supported. Basically EU says close all coal plants and replace with wind energy. PV has far less support simply because EU does not get much solar radiance due to its latitude.

Europe is the leader in offshore wind energy, with the first offshore wind farm (Vindeby) being installed in Denmark in 1991.

As of 2010, there are 39 offshore wind farms in waters off Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom, with a combined operating capacity of 2,396 MW. More than 100 GW (or 100,000 MW) of offshore projects are proposed or under development in Europe.

The European Wind Energy Association has set a target of 40 GW installed by 2020 and 150 GW by 2030.

=== Largest Wind Farms Onshore and Offshore By Area

  • These are onshore unless otherwise mentioned

USA

Midwest to Texas, USA

  • Los Vientos, TX US - 0.9 GW
  • Meadow Lake IN US - 0.8 GW
  • Roscoe TX US - 0.78 GW
  • Horse Hollow Wind Energy TX US - 0.73 GW
  • Capricorn Ridge TX US - 0.66 Gw
  • Sweetwater TX US - 0.6 Gw
  • Flat Ridge KS US - 0.57 Gw
  • Buffalo Gap TX US - 0.52 Gw

Southwest USA

  • Limon CO US - 0.6 Gw
  • Rush Creek CO US - 0.6 Gw
  • Fowler Ridge IN US - 0.6 Gw
  • Cedar Creek CO TX - 0.55 Gw
  • Highland Iowa UX - 0.5 Gw

China

  • Ganshu, 8 Gw but with a goal of 20,000 MW by 2020.
  • Zhang Jiakou - 3 Gw
  • Urat Zhongqi, Bayannur City 2.1 GW
  • Hami Wind Farm 2 Gw
  • Damao Qi, Baotou City 1.6 Gw
  • Hongshagang, Town, Minqin County 1 Gw
  • Kailu, Tongliao 1 Gw
  • Chengde 1 Gw
  • Dabancheng Xinjiang - 0.5 Gw
  • Tongliao Beiqinghe Wind Farm, Inner Mongolia - 0.3 Gw
  • Bayannur Wulanyiligeng Wind Farm, Inner Mongolia - 0.3 Gw
  • Liaoning Fuxin Wind Farm Liaoning - 0.3 Gw
  • Longyuan Huitengliang Wind Farm Inner Mongolia - 0.3 Gw
  • Zhangdong Wind Farm - 0.3 Gw
  • Wulanchabu Hongji Wind Farm, Inner Mongolia, China - 0.3 Gw
  • Daqing Heping Aobao, Daqing China - 0.3

Offshore China

  • Binhai North, offshore
  • SPIC Jiangsu Dafeng, offshore
  • Dongtai Four, offshore
  • Huaneng Rudong, offshore
  • Jiangsu Longyuan Chiang Sand, offshore
  • Liuheng (Guodian Zhoushan Putuo), offshore
  • Chenjiagang (Jiangsu) Xiangshui, offshore
  • Jiangsu Luneng Dongtai, offshore
  • Greater Changhua, offshore
  • CGN Yangjiang Nanpeng Island, offshore
  • CTGNE Yangjiang Shapa - phase II, offshore
  • Rudong H6, offshore
  • Rudong H10, offshore
  • Formosa II, offshore
  • Datang Jiangsu Binhai, offshore
  • Laoting Bodhi Island, offshore

Xinjiang Jilin China - 0.4 Gw

California, Oregon and Washington, USA

  • Alta Wind Energy Center (Oak Creek-Mojave Desert), CA, USA - 1.5 Gw
  • Shepherds Flat OR US - 0.8 GW
  • Tehachpai Pass CA US - 0.7 GW
  • San Gorgonio Pass CA US - 0.6 Gw
  • Altamont Pass CA US - 0.57 Gw

India

India has the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world.[85] As of 31 March 2014, the installed capacity of wind power was 21136.3 MW mainly spread across Tamil Nadu state (7253 MW). Wind power accounts nearly 8.5% of India's total installed power generation capacity, and it generates 1.6% of the country's power.

  • Muppandal TN, India - 1.5 Gw
  • Jaisalmer Rajasthan, India - 1.1 GW

Europe

Sweden

  • Markbygden - 0.8 GW

East Europe

  • Fantanele-Cogealac Romania - 0.6 Gw

UK

  • Hornsea 1 1.2 Gw

Scotland

  • Whitelee Scotland - 0.55 Gw
  • Clyde Scotland, UK - 0.52 Gw

### UK offshore Four offshore wind farms are in the Thames Estuary area near London: Kentish Flats, Gunfleet Sands, Thanet and London Array. The latter was largest in the world.

  • Hornsea 1, offshore
  • Walney Extension, offshore
  • London Array, offshore
  • Beatrice, offshore
  • Gwynt y Môr, offshore
  • Race Bank, offshore
  • Greater Gabbard, offshore
  • Dudgeon, offshore
  • Rampion, offshore
  • Lincs, offshore
  • Burbo Bank Extension, offshore
  • West of Duddon Sands, offshore
  • Walney (phases 1&2), offshore
  • Sheringham Shoal, offshore
  • Humber Gateway, offshore
  • Westermost Rough, offshore
  • Thanet, offshore
  • Moray East, offshore
  • Triton Knoll, offshore
  • East Anglia ONE, offshore

Germany, offshore

  • Amrumbank West, offshore
  • Butendiek, offshore
  • DanTysk, offshore
  • Baltic 2, offshore
  • Meerwind Süd / Ost, offshore
  • Sandbank (Phase 1), offshore
  • Gode Wind (phases 1+2), offshore
  • Hohe See, offshore
  • Borkum Riffgrund 2, offshore
  • Veja Mate, offshore
  • BARD Offshore 1, offshore
  • Global Tech I, offshore
  • Merkur, offshore
  • Arkona, offshore
  • Trianel Borkum West II (Phase 1), offshore
  • Wikinger, offshore
  • Nordsee One, offshore
  • Borkum Riffgrund 1, offshore
  • Nordsee Ost, offshore

Belgium, offshore

  • orther Offshore Wind Farm, offshore
  • entel, offshore
  • horntonbank (phases 1–3), offshore
  • orthwind, offshore

Netherlands, offshore

  • Gemini Wind Farm, offshore
  • Borssele 1&2, offshore
  • Borssele 3&4, offshore

Denmark, offshore

  • Kriegers Flak, offshore
  • Horns Rev 3, offshore
  • Anholt, offshore
  • Horns Rev 2, offshore
  • Rødsand II, offshore

Asia

Taiwan

Australia

  • Snowtown .37 Gw
  • Hallett 0.35 Gw
  • Hornsdale 0.31 Gw
  • Lake Bonney 0.28 Gw

Africa

Zafarana Egypt - 0.55 Gw

Tarfaya Wind Farm Morocco Akhfenir 0.3 Gw


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